Collection Title: Carmarthen weekly reporter
Institution: The National Library of Wales
Rights: The copyright status or ownership of this resource is unknown.
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riiE passing WEEK "Lot there b thistles; there are grapes, If eld tilings, there are now ■ I,i, are iicit Tea thousand broken lights and shapes Yet glimpses of the true."—Tennyscn. Every e Jurat.'on.il authority in the Kingdom is now faced with a demand that children should be allowed to leave' school and to be- come farm lahourCTs. The demand practically is that compulsory schoool att enda nce should be and that school children she tiki be'put to work as soon as possible. H* The argument for this state of affairs is very plausible; but it is Hell that it should be thoroughly examined before public authorities take such a dra-toc step as to repeal all the educational .legislation of the last 45 years. Js ilitre any clear evidence that there is a shortage of labour P There may be a shortage of labour at the wages which fanners have usually paid; but that is quite a different thing. There is no evidence at all that there is a scarcity cf labour. There is a scarcity of cheap lalx>v.r—which is a horse of a different colour. WTo The plain fact of the matter is that from time immemorial agriculttiiral labourers have beeen the worst paid of workers. In the Middle Ages the rural labourer was a serf or a "villein." The "villein" had legally defined rights. He had his own house, his own email holding, and records show that he was often promoted to petitions of trust. But legally he was, "bound to the land." He could not leave the estate of the landlord, and go to live elsewhere. Many villeins of course did run away. The Boroughs were subject to no lord except the King, and if a villein managed to get admitted as a "freeman of the liorough" lie could snap his fingers at the feudal lord from whom he had run away. This was how- ever a long and tedious process, and the run- away villein always had to face the risk of being brought back by his lord if he had not lived long enough in the Borough to have acquired the freedom. Hi's state of affairs broke down in the later part of the Middle Ages. Many causes con- tributed to bring it alx>u.t.. Human nature is the same everywhere. Feudal lords of a gen- erous nature, emancipated their villeins. In many cases, the people themselves were tur- bulent and defied their lords. The Church was frequently at variance with the Castle, and secured the villeins many legal rights. The conception of t,lie Sunday and of the "holyday" which the Church in the Middle Ages inculcated was that these were days on which a serf was not bound to work for his master. But the Black Death more than any- thing else freed the English villeins. Labour became so scarce as a result of that awful plague that the labourers became masters of the situation, and landlords were glad to em- ploy any men they could get. The Wars of the Roses in which the nobles exterminated each other also helped to make England a free country. "When Henry VII. ascended the throne of En,gl-,and after the battle of Bosworth, the bulk of the English people lived as freemen on their own land. The "villeins" had passed away, and their descendants had grown into "copyholders." The copyhold tenure is rather rare -now, but it was the commonest of all forms of tenure in Tudor times. The copy- holder is bound to pay certain, dues to his superior landlord but having paid them, the lord of the manor has no further claim on him. If the copyholder pays his dues he is as P. secure as any freeholder. The great change was brought about by the Vagrancy Acts of Queen Elizabeth. The Abbeys and Monasteries had owned nearly half the land of England, and the closing up of the houses and the transference of the pro- perty to territorial magnates naturally enough upset the whole social system. The county was. overrun with vagrants whom the,re was nobody to relieve. Parliament diad to grapple with a very difficult problem. A series of savage statues were passed against persons who were found outside their own parishes. The labourers once more became "bound to the soil." From the time of Elizabeth to the days of George III.. any person might be ordered by the justices to return to his own parish not only if he became chargeable—but if he were likely to become chargeable to the parish in which he lived. # This meant that any working-man was liable to be driven out of any place but his native parish. It would not be difficult to persuade an ignorant country justice of the days of Queen Anne that any man who lived by his day's wage was likely to become a charge on the rates at some time or other. Of course he was. If a, labourer were taken ill, he would certainly become chargeable, and who couid deny that he was not likely to be taken ill at some time or other. So that was how the law worked. No poor man was allowed to leave his own parish. He had to live and die in his native parish, and to take whatever wages the local employers chose to give him. This is the foundation of the prejudice which is still found lingering in rural districts against persons who are not "natives" of the parish. Public sentiment actually consecrated the oppression, and men came to believe that it was a great hardship to leave their native place, and that they should not allow persons from other parishes to come amongst them. Even in the "sixties" we find labourers in Somerset working at 8s a week, whilst the labourers in Yorkshire were earning 15s a week. Did the Somerset labourers think of going to Yorkshire to earn more money? They would as soon have thought of migrating to Mars. They would net have trusted them- selves in Yorkshire, and the Yorkshire men would not have welcomed them! The law which kept the labourer in his own parish was not quite intolerable so long as the "Commons" were in existence. Every village in the seventeenth and the eighteenth centuries still had its own land. The poor people could pasture their cattle on the village common, and there were even cases in which there was "common" corn land in which the villagers each cultivated strips. It is a curious fact that nearly all land measures consist of a unit in which a strip of land has a length ten times its breadth. Thus the English rood is two perches by twenty; the English acre is a strip of land four perches long by forty perches wide. Mr Seebohm, who was one of the Welsh Land Commissioners, and who spent a, good deal of time in investigating primitive tenures, shows conclusively that the commonest land measure in every country is a rectangle which has one side ten times the length of the other. What a .picture this conjures up of the old communal corn-land outside the village in which each householder had his own strip! **•* The "Commons" were stolen from the people. There is no other name for the pro- cess. The "Enclosure" Acts were passed by Parliament. The Lords were all large land- owners and the members of' the House of Commons were all country gentlemen of the "squire" type in those days. They passed a law to take the fond for themselves, and the poor people were not consulted. The old English villages in many cases had owned these "commons" for thousands oi years; but the poor had not a word to say when the rich stele them by Act of Parliament. This is the origin of the old English saying "that the man who stole the goose eft the common was hanged, the man who stole the common from the goose was allowed to go free." When the poor villagers were deprived of their land they became mere serfs to oil in- tents and purposes. So long as they had the Commons they were independent. They could work for the wealthy, or they could not just as they chose. One object of the theft of the commons was to break tiie independent spirit cf the English peasantry, Towards the end cf the eighteenth century, the condition of the English rural labourers had fallen to a lower depth than that which they had touched oince the time of Julus Caesar. The magis- trates had a table drawn up showing how much money was required to keep a. family alive. For instance, a labourer with six chil- dren would when wheat reached a certain figure require 9s 6d a. weetic. If his wages were 8s. he was entitled to Is Gd a week relief. It is almcct .incredible that such a state of affairs should have existed into the btginning cf the nineteenth century; but the "tables" or sliding scales are still preserved. The price of the loaf and the size of the family were the two factors on whinh the scale slided. The law recognised that the farm labourer was to be kept in a perpetual state of pauper- ism—his wages to be eked out by the poor rate! 444 The reform of the PGor Law, the coming of 1 the railways, and the spread of education gradually altered this system. But the idea still lingers on that farm-work should be done by people who are in a staite of serfdom. Education was made compulscrily by the Act of 1870; but we all know that School Boards did net do their duty. Even in rural districts of Carmarthenshire members were elected to the School Board on the distinct understand- ing that they would never sign an order to prosecute a parent, who kept his children from school. This is a notorious fact; and many people over 40 years of age reading these.lines know quite well what School Boards are re- ferred to! "How are we going to get servants and labourers if all the girls and boys are edu- cated?" was a question openly asked in the rural districts so long as the Icoal School Boards were in existence. There are men yet alive who have asked it publicly. All this has now passed away. Any attempt to chain the labourer to the soil by ignorance is fore- doomed to failure. Since education came under the County Council, the rural child has at least as good a chance as the urban child indeed the children from the county schools often "score off" the town children. Two causes helped to keep down the status of the farm labourer in Great Britain (1) the advent of the Irish harvesters and (2) the im- portation of industrial school boys from the town. Tens of thousands of Irish small- holders used to migrate to England in June and return home in September having earned enough money to pay the rent of their home- steads. Their position as tenants defied all the .laws of political economy. The holdings which they occupied at home were from an economic standpoint worth no rent at all. If any value were placed on the labour expended on extracting a poor crop from a couple of acres in Conemara or Donegal, it would be found that the income fell short of the ex- penditure. Yet the people were quite willing to pay "rent" which they earned elsewhere for the privilege of living on the land which their forefathers occupied. The Irish harvester has disappeared. A few still come over; but they kno'w the value of their labour, and their numbers are now inconsiderable. This annual migration affec- ted England and Scotland more than Wales. The importation of industrial school boys affected Wales mora than any other part of the Kingdom. Farmers were able to get plenty of boys at JM or £ 8 a year to work on farms. The boys have all joined the Army- or nearly all. This is the real cause of the shortage of agricultural labour. The question however is-is there really a scarcity of labour? If the railway companies want men to do manual labour at the present time they have to pay them 30s a week or so. The Carmarthen Corporation has now to pay its men a minimum of 2.5s a week. These men have only to work six days a week. If they are asked to work on Sunday there are special allowances. If the farmers offer 4s and 5s a day, can they get men That is the question. It is no part of the business of the Government to provide cheap labour for the farmers. Far- mers are at present getting 25 to 60 per cent. more for all they ha.ve to sell than they got a few years ago. Is it reasonable, is it even oane to expect to get labour at the old prices. The farmers can well afford to pay higher wages, and the labourers cannot afford to work at the old rates. Until it is proved that there is really a scarcity of labour let us hear no more of the proposal to exploit the school children. If the children are taken away from school now, they will grow up ignorant, and they will be "bound to the soil" there will be nothing for them but to remain farm labourers all their lives. Agriculture must compete in the labour market with other industries. Why should children be sent to work on farms any more than in collieries or tinplate factories? The proposal must be looked at from a business standpoint. The Government has issued a very serious warning against strikes. It appears that there have been strikes on the Clyde and that these have retarded the production of certain works which are urgently required to finish the war. A certain amount of secrecy envelopes the discussion; but there is no harm in hazarding the suggestion that the works in question were warships. Possibly the Ger-
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mans nrnv have an inkling of the fact that ships are built on the Oyd just as we have heard a rumour that the German guns are manufactured by a firm c?'led Krupps at a place called E,êsen. It is curious how these facts leak out. It is possible too that the Germans may have seen a bock called "Whit- taker's Almanac." Some enterprising spy may have speculated a shelling for a copy in paper or 2s 6d for the bigger edition in cloth. If the Germans were so astute as to get holid J'I a copy of this work, they would learn that there was a whole fleet of battleships with loin, guns designed to be ready for 1916. One ship which had loin, guns "would be able to sink any opponent and would probably be able -to reduce any coast fortress. It might strike the Germans as the most obvious thing for the Government to arrange to finish ne or twio of the-se ships at once even if the ethers were delayed. All this of oou -:o is only eui- jecture; but anyhow as the Germans are not born imbeciles it has net given them any in- formation which they have not already had. *«• It appears that the men engaged these works—whatever they are—have struck for more wages and that the works been delayed. This is terribly unpatriotic on the part cf the workmen. What business have they to ask for more wages ? It is quite true that many other classes have thought first of themselves and of their country a long way after. When the British Navy hunted the German merchantmen off the sea, British shippers were rid of their business rivals, and freights went up like rcckets. Did anybody denounce the shipping firms as unpatriotic? Did the Government talk savagely to them? Then what abcutthe speculators in corn? Dxl the Government tell them that they must not run up the prices of corn? And what aibout coal? Has the Government told the colliery proprietors that their action is unpatriotic P Has the Government lectured the farmers on putting up the price of home produce? Wheat has been as low as 3.5s a quarter in this country of late years. Tariff Reformers repeatedly told us that a duty of 5s a quarter would enable the local farmers to sell it with profit. We were assured from various sources that wheat growing at 40s a quarter would pay very well. During the last few weeks foreign wheat has fluctuated between 55s and GOs. And home wheat has fetched practically the same price. HtaYe the farmers come to the market and said "Wheat at 40s a quarter I \TO will pay us very well; that is cur price." No- bedv expects the farmers to do anything of the kind. If foreign wheat went up to 150s, local wheat would touch the same figure. The pries of any article is not what will return a fair profit; the price is what the seller can get. 0.111 the workman be blamed if he follows the same principle? A workman is on a job and earns (say) 15s a day. They do earn enormous wages on the Clyde. Ordinarily he knows that he cannot get more. Firms would rather not build ships than pay too much for them. But suppose the ship is a super- Dreadnought, and that the workmen know that it is bound to be finished by the 1st of May and that the Government would pay an extra million rather than have it delayed. The workmen in such a case knows that if he demands Ll .a day or 30s a day he has a very good chance of getting it. It may be said that this is blackmail. Of course it is. It is blackmail when workmen do it; but it is busi- ness when big commercial firms do it." What in the captain's but a choleric word is in the soldier ranik blasphemy" as Shakespeare says. The workman says "Pay me the wages 1 demand. I am not going to argue whether they are fair or not. But if you don't pay them, the work is not done." The commer- cial man or the farmer says "Pay me my price or you starve. I am not going to argue whe- ther the prices are fair or not. These are the prices; take them or leave them." The middle classes who call for the suppression of strikes do not see that the same argument calls for the suppression of trade rings; and the workmen who call for maximum prices do not see that the same principle justifies the Government in fixing maximum wages. Both classes are utterly inconsistent. The British Fleet is at the present moment engaged in one of the most dangerous opera- tions in which warships have ever taken part. This is an attempt to force the Dardanelles. The Dardanelles is a big narrow strait which connects the Mediterranean with the Sea of Marmora. To reach the Black Scia it would be necessary also to force the Bosphorus; but that is a comparatively simple affair compared to the forcing of the Dardanelles. The Dardanelles is about 3.5 miles long. A swift current runs through it in the direc- tion of the Mediterranean. The strait is about two miles wide at its broadest. At its narrowest—about two miles from the Medi- terranean end—it shrinks to a width of 1,100 yards. The swift current carries down any mines which are placed in the water, and the shores are at intervals dotted with fortresses. The Admiral who has charge of the operations has a. difficult job in hand; hue he knows his business. The whole of the Dardanelles has not to be rushed at once. The outer forts have been smashed up by the Fleet. From that point of vantage an attack will be made on the Narrows. If the Narrows are forced in process of time, the Turks will not have much heart to contest the final stage of the passage. The Turks believe in Predestination to an extent to which no Christian ever believed in that doctrine. The Turk believes that the small affairs of everyday life arc decreed by the "will of God." It is foolish for Eurcipean writers to play upon the Arabic word "Allah." "Allah" is merely the Arabic for for "God." This belief that everything is decreed by God is capable of raising the Mohamedan to great outbursts of energy. He will attempt the most impossible tasks in war- fare quite cheerfully, believing that he is an instrument in the hands of Divine Providence. But this view of life cuts both ways. When he sees that the enemy is winning, the Turk is very easily disheartened. He will not fight to the last. If he considers that Divine Pro- vidence has for some inscrutable reason de- cided to deliver the southern waters into the hands of the Frankish infidels, he feels i h:l1, it is useless to resist the decree. This d IC- trine of "Kismet" (the Moslem term t. r Fate) reconciles believers to the greatest re- verses of fortune. The greatest difficulty probably for 1 J e attacking force is to grapple with the mines There are however methods of dealing with mines. The mine is only a deadly peril wlen its presence is unsuspected. During n,e pre- sent war, the British Fleet has evot-t-J some very effective methods of dealing with mines. A few weeks ago one of the British sub- marines dived under the mines and torpedoed the Turkish lattlechip "Me-sudiyeh." It is curious to reflect that when this ship was built at Glasgow over 30 years ago, its com- pletion was hailed as a valuable addition to the naval power of our ally the Turk. In those days, the Old Turk was desirous above all things of keeping on gocd terms with Eng- land. But the Young Turk whilst fancying that lie was adopting an independent attitude has become the mere cat>-paw of Germany. Twenty years ago an attack by our Fleet on land fortifications would have been con- sidered pretty hopeless. Right up to the end of the nineteenth century, experts all be- lieved in the possibility of building "impreg nable" fortresses. And against the artillery then in existence they could make fortresses impregnable. The art of forti-ficatioxi had outdistanced the art of the artillerist. Metz was surrendered by treachery in 1870. Paris was starved out; had the garrison and the civil poulation had enough food they could have held out for years. Even the bombard- ment of Alexandra by the British Fleet in 1882 did very littt'.e damage to the fortifica- tions. What it really did was to frighten the Egyptian garrisons out of their senses. AU this is changed. During the last ten yerfrs. artillery has made immense strides. It is not really that guns are bigger than they used to he. There have been b:g monster guns in the past. But one ounce of the modern explosives is as powerful as a pound of the old black powder. The Krupp howitzers blew the fortifieatios of Liege to pieces in 24 hours. The latest guns mounted by the Brit- ish Navy are quite as powerful as the famous Krupp howitzers. The difference is in the trajectory—the path of the projectile through the air. The Krupp howitzer throws its f-hot very high and has a short range. The tra- jectory is ilike a capital U upside down. The British naval gun has a longer range and a flatter trajectory; it can land thet. part of a ton on a target ten mileG distant. The fortress is really at a disadvantage, even if the guns are equally matched. The fortress is fixed and the range known, whereas the ship can move. The statement that the Dardanelles has been strongly fortified is probably only true in a comparative sense. A large number of Krupp's Gin. guns were recently mounted there. The Krupp Gin. gun is a powerful weapon compared to the antiquated curiosities which filled the folits before. A simple mathe- matical calculation will show that a 13.5in. gun throws a projectile over 11 times as heavy as a Gin..gun-for the weight of the projectile varies as the cube of the bore of the guns. Thus a 3in. gun is not three times as powerful as a lin. gun it is 27 times as powerful. «*# We need not export any sudden collapse of the Turkish defence. The British Fleet and the French Fleet may be expected to attack the Dardanelles as calmly and scientifically as the Japanese and the Indians attacked Tsing- Tao. They went very slowly about that, and with very little loss they reduced that modern German fortress to a heap of ruins in a couple of months. With good management, the Allies may take the Dardamelle fort& step by step in the same way. If the Dardanelles is forced, there is noth- ing to prevent the Allied Fleet sailing through the Sea of Marmora. The Goeben and the Breslau are too much damaged to be of any service. Constantinople would then be under the guns of the Allied Fleet. The city is at the "near end" of the Bosphorus. and couid he blown to fragments by a couple of battle- ships in the Sea of Marmora. The Bosphorus would present no difficulty therefore, parti- ularly as the Russian Fleet would co-operate with the British and French working from the other end. «#• The forcing of the Dardanelles would mean that Russia would be relieved from her pre- sent stage of siege. Archangel in the North is frozen. The BaHic ports are useless as Ger- many commands the entrance to that inland sea. The Black Sea is commanded by the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles Fesent in Turkish hands. Russia. can neither import ammunition nor export grain. There are millions of tans of grain in the Black Sea ready for export. Every fort in the Dardan- elles which its blown to pieces by the British guns brings down the price of wheat another shilling. Chicago is upset by the fear of a deluge of Russian grain being let loose on the market before April.
i jj WELSH. C.U,P,.E U VM A IhAYIMN'SI § cures 11 ICOUGHS&C0LDSW ■ Iavaluablein the Nursery BOttles I 2 017 ALL CHF.,IIISTS S.RORES. lit' v ro AN D FTER N BAIIISH MEALS TAKE m
IThe Qnestioo of Health
The Qnestioo of Health The question of health is a matter which if jure to concern us at one time or another when Influenza is so provaJent as it if just now, so it is well to know what to taae tc ward off an attack of this mist weakening disease, this epidemic catarrh or cold of an aggravating kind, to combat it whilst under its baneful influence, and particularly eJttw an attack, for then the system ia so lowered as to be liable to the most dangerous of com- plaints. Gwilym Evans' Quinine Bitters w acknowledged by all who have given it a fair trial to be the best specific remedy dealin; with Influenza in all its various stages, beinc a Preparation skilfufly prepared with Quinine and accompanied with other blood purifying 1 and enriching agents, suitable for the liver, digestion, and all those ailments requiring tonic strengthening and nerve increasing propeities. It is invaluable for those suffer- ing from colds, pneumonia, or any serious ill ness, or prostration caused by sleeplessness, or worry of any kind, when the body has a general feeling of weakness or lassitude. Send for a copy of the pamphlet of testi- monials. which carefully read and consider well, then buy a bottfle (sold in two sizes, 2s 9d and 4s 6d) at youf nearest Chemist or Stores, but when purchasing see that the name "Gwilym Evans" is on the Sabel, stamp and bottle, for without which none are genuine. Sole Proprietors: Quinine Bittare Manufacturing Company, Limited, Llanelly; South Wales.
MAYORS WAR RELIEF FUND
MAYOR'S WAR RELIEF FUND. Amounts already acknowledged: Red Cross t40 8s, Prince of Wales 1:223 4s 4d, General Fund, t885 17s Id. Miss Annie Jenkins, Melbourne, Australia (late of Market House, Carmarthen): 91 General. Railwaymen at Carmarthen Town and Junc- tion, 12th contrib.: 15s General.
MAYORS BELGIAN REFUGEES FUND
MAYOR'S BELGIAN REFUGEES FUND. Amount already acknowledged: jC504 Is 6d (This sum includes subscriptions that have been paid in advance in some oases up to one year). Parish of St. David's: t4. Tabernacle Chapel: E2. Union street Chapel: L2. English Baptist Church: £ 1 10s. Water street Chapel: tl 10s. Bethaniia Chapel: £1. Staff of Home and Colonial Stores (Carmar- then Branch): 12s. Students at Presbyterian College: 8s.
NEW VICAR OF LL AN STEM AN I
NEW VICAR OF LL AN STEM AN. The Rev J. Rowland Thomas, B.A., who has held curacies at Cardigan and Llanguicke has been collated to the benefice of Llanste- phan in succession to the present Vicar of St. ) St. Clears. I
CARMARTHEN j s D K R U K SEAKOBLIGOT
CARMARTHEN (j s D K R U K SEAKOBLIGOT, Jo/ne, come, and alt yon down jou ehall not budge, Vc- shall not go, till I act you cp a slass •Viiero jou may soe the inmost part of yon. SHAKBSrXA&S. There is one point in favour of tho leek anyhow. It can be had in blcom at any time, and is not dependent on the weather like the daffodil. One of the curious results of the high price of coal is that there is a bigger demand for coke than ever there was before. There is also a movement to revive the making of "balls"—which has now almost become a lost art. "Balls" were quite a feature of domestic life roynd about Carmarthen until quite re- cently. The "balls" were a kind of "patent. fuel" made at home. Coa,l dust was mixed with clay, and after the mixture had been well trodden it was made by hand into masses something the shape of breakfast rolls. "Balls" made a very lasting fire. When the grate was piiled with them the kitdhen grew very much like the stoke hole of an Atlantic liner. The weary traveller on the roads of Carmarthenshire was often delighted on a wet day to be ushered into a room in a country in.n and to find the grate piled high with balls. It was really worth while getting wet to have such an experience. The heat from the fire greeted you as soon as you opened the dcor. # I rather fancy that there is going to be a revival in the "ball" business. I have heard several enquiries lately for clay, which leads me to believe that some people are gcing to make a fresh start in this direction. Coal is getting dearer inyliow-(Iti,it,e apart from ths difficulties caused by the war, and some special efforts will certainly be made in the future to eoonomise in the matter of fuel. *«* Another undoubted result of the war is likely to. be an increased use of margarine. j People are finding that they cannot afford butter, and are experimenting with substi- tutes. When margarine or—as it was then called "butterine"—was first introduced, it was a vile stuff not much better than cart- grease. Scince has been applied to the pro- duction of butter sulxstitutes for several decades, and some of the better varieties of these are really preferraible to the inferior kinds of butter. There is a grave possibility tha.t in tho near future some exceedingly good substitute may drive butter out. of the market altogether. I do not think even the farmers would be very sorry to see this brought about. There is such a growing demand for milk that the farmers don't care about making butter. After all, butter is purely a local production. In Spain and Italy butter is practically un- known. The climate would not allow it to bo kept in tropical countries except in a bottle. The .inhabitants of warm countries use olive oil as we use butter. Macaroni is merely a paste of olive oil and flour-and is the Italian substitute for bread and butter. I don't know that the high price of butter may net drive the British public to the use of Macaroni— and then we shall all take to practising on the barrel-organ. The Kaiser has a lot to answer for. ••• The Guardians have seriously discussed the propriety of stopping the relief which has been granted to some persons, because these persons have soldiers billeted on them. The only reason which was urged against the pro- posal was the very proper one that nobody knew how long the soldiers will be here. 1 think this is a very good reason. In the first place, desperate efforts are being made by other towns to get soldiers billeted on them; and in the second place, it is highly probable that a large part of the Army will be sent en active service at no distant date. **» The present state of affairs is not going to be permanent. If it wore we .should see some changes in the town. Already there has been talk of companies b-eling floated to buy up a couple of big residences, and to get forty or or fifty soldiers billeted in each. If the pre- sent military occupation could be guaranteed as a permariency such schemes would pay very weU. The present rate for bi life ting soldiers in Carmarthen is about 24s a week. I think the exact figure is 23s i-id. I have however no head for figures, and if I am three halfpence out either way I hope it will be overlooked. It is not to be assumed however that this money is all profit. If one could get half a dozen soldiers at this rate and give them cockles for dinner I daresay it would pay all right. There are people who have enter- tained this brilliant idea; but they very quickly realised their error. The billeting is a contract. Each meal has to be according to specification. For instance there must be four ounces of bacon for break- fast, and a pound of beef for dinner. I fancy there is a quantity of cheese also specified for the evening meal. At the present prices of bacon, beef, and cheeoo there is not so much profit on the transaction as may be fanc'ied. Still the rate paid in Carmarthen is about the highest in the Kingdom. The figure has been as low as 14s a week on the South Coast. «*« The euricus aspect of W ar Offloe finance is that it requires so much more to keep a soldier than to keep a soldier's wife. To board and lodge the soldier costis about 238 (3(1 a week in many cases. He also gets his pay and even if he has stoppages for the benefit of his family, it still leaves him 3s 6d a week at the worst of times. This brings him up to 27s a week. The soldier is also kept in cloth- ing and boots. Even if this is only calculated to amount to t4 â year, the total cost of keep- ing a, soldier amounts to 28s 6d a week. «*• The soldiers wife is allowed 12s 6d a week— including stoppages from ihor husband's pay. It may be said that a woman who has no household duties may earn money. This is quite true, and would be a good argument i!f there were larger allowances for wives who have children. A wife with four children gets 24s a week. A woman with four ^hildren can't possibly do anything to earn money- except «he neglects her children. By no iknown train of logic is it possible to justify these figures. Either there is too much being paid in one cose, or too little in the other. .It. If any town is turned into a collection of boarding-lionises, it tends to change the social habits of the community. There are towns in which a big rush of boarders and the offer of high prices, for lodgings, has quite demoralised j the "men-folk." Men begin to throw up their jobs when they find that their wives can earn enough money to keep the house going. In any town in which women have for a gen- eration been able to maintain the household, there grows up a curious parasitic race of men who accept it as quite the natural order of things that a wife should maintain her hus- band. Society is constituted quite differently I in such towns from the form which it assumes in towns in which foundries; wharves, (ship- yards or coal pits employs armies of men and leave little or no scope for women. The Diamond Jubilee Fund is likely to be released at no distant cate. A scheme has baen put before the Charity Commissioners for the application cf the money to -certain purposes. The proceedings are going on slow- ly it is hoped the Charity Commissioners will work at express speed. Aletheia.
NEW QUAY LIGHT RAILWAY
NEW QUAY LIGHT RAILWAY. Major J. C. Harford presided over the annual meeting of the shareholders of the Lampeter and New Quay Light Railway Co. on Saturday. The Chairman, in submitting the report said that owing to the war there was little to report with regard to the working of the railway or its future prospects. For the half year the trnffic was good, the in- crease being, £5.1 7s 4d. and the directors be- lieved the second half would, under ordinary circumstances, have shown a much greater ineroa.se. Under the Government plan the company was credited with the same amount for the second half of 1911 as it earned in the second half of 1913. making, with the amount earned in the first half, a, total of £ 518 7s Id, the balance from which, after paying small sums, was placed to the company's credit towards payment clf interest 011 the overdraft. The line had been well maintained,, and had been of great advantage to the district. The report was adopted.
Ct iit Derjy I t
C-t ii't Derjy I t. If this had happened anywhere except 111 Carmarthen our readers might doubt it. The average man is a doubter. This is not surprising—but proof like the following can- not be disputed. It will stand any amount of investigation. Mrs M. Davics. of 53, Trevaughan Hill, Tialeg road, Carmarthen, says: "My back was constantly aching some time ago just across the kidneys. I did not sleep very well at night and my head ached very much. 1 ail ways felt tired and could not get about to do my work as I should have liked. "Sometimes the water was disordered, but after taking Doan's backache kidney pills I was a great doaj better. The pains went from my back and I soon felt quite well again. Dean's pills are very good indeed, and I shall tell my friends about them." Doan's backache kidney pills are helpful in all kidney and bladder troubles, such as in- flammation, stone, gravel, rheumatism, scia- -etc., and are widely recommended for curing these complaints. They act directly upon the kidneys, healing the delicate membranes, and giving tone and vigour to the kidney action. Urio acid deposits and waste fluids are quickly flushed out .of the system, when the kidneys are well again. Price 2s 9d a box. 6 boxes 13s 9d; of aU dealers, or from Foster-McClellan Co., 8, Wells street, Oxford street, London, W. Don't ask for backache or kidney pills, ask distinctly for Doan's backache kidney pills, the same as Mrs Da vies had.
THE BXDS OF THE BRITISH ARMY
THE BXDS OF THE BRITISH ARMY. A subject cf especial interest at the moment while the discussion as to the value of musio in military life is proceeding, is an article in the March number of the "Windsor Maga- zine" on the Bands of the British Army, which contains many facts and details not widely known, and is lavishly illustrated. In the course of the article the writer says "In a brief sketch of the rise- of military music, perhaps 1333. the date of the battle of Halidon Hill, may serve as a sufficiently early starting point, when 'The Englysche myn&- trelles beaten their tabors and blewen their trompes, and pipers pipcdene loud and made a groat schowte upon the Skottes.' "Marches, properly so-called, are believed by some authorities to have originated in the Thirty Years War, between 1618 and 1648, when Germany was indeed the battlefield of Europe. Music was almost killed, and even drinking songs and folk-music had disappeared Marchcs, many of which were doubtless de- rived from folk-songs, were, perhaps, then in. vented to inspirit the troops. This, however, is by some historians denied, and a far higher antiquity is claimed for the march proper. Music partaking of that character was doubt- less employed to, accompany processions, and in the Greek drama the chorus entered and withdrew with rhythmic song. "The bagpipes must have been employed at a very early period. They form an extremely interesting group of instruments, and it may be said broadly that nearly every nation has had them at different periods, and in every country they have assumed a different form. Without going ouftside the United Kingdom, we can compare the Irish and Scotch pipes, which differ in many important respects. The pipes have a double interest—for the musician who finds in them an ancient scale or system of tuning, together with many features, such as drones, cuts, warblers, and other devices, which have at various times exercised an in- uence on composers—and for our Celtic bro- thers, whose fine, racial instincts and tradi- tional feelings they always arouse. The pipes have done, and will do, their share in stirring up the martital and patriotic spirit which has ofte ncarried our troops to victory. "Fifes have also i. to notice. They were in favour before the reign of James I., when they were withdrawn, to be restored by the Duke of Cumberland in 1745, who reintro- duced them to the Guards, and the drums and fifes took their place as a recognised body. distinct from the band generally speaking, but a valuable asset for marching purposes." Several important a-rticles on War theTOea add to the current interest of the March "Windsor Magazine," and the many iilustra- tions which accompany them are particularly well reproduced. Rail and Road in the Wat- is the theme of a very interesting survey of the extent to which the travelling advantages of highly-civilised countries have already played their part in the geographical and strategic conditions of modern warfare, Under tlio title d New Protector- ate," Mr H. E. Garle. who acted as the legal adviser to the. ex-Ivhedive's Civil List before the outbreak of the war, contributes an in- formative article on Turkish versus British influence in Egypt. A further group of por- traits of "Men of Mark in the War" includes* some twenty reproductions from recent phorto„ gra.ps, a number o,f them being given as full, iw&o plates. The fiction of the number is as important as usual, including, as it does, a large instalment of Maurice Hewlett's fascinating romance, "A Lovers' Tale." a new complete episode m the entertaining series by Dornfard Yates c powerful story of the early days of the War by G. B. Lancaster, and oont,rib i; ly other well-known novelists.
LLANFYNYDD. Another link wdtli the past in this village has been severed by the death of Miss Dinah Jones at the ripe age of 79 years. She and her brother Mr John Jones, late of Briskin I arm had lived a retired life in Aelvbrvn. Her health liad suffered slightly from the severe winter, but her end was rather unex- pected She was interred in the burial ground of the Spyte .Methodist Church in the same grave as her brother who died about six months ago at the age of 83 veal's. °^ ninf.VA if*' S ,a;v l>a-SSCHl here without, ativ notice being taken except a holidav 'i->r fbk school children. Thoy of course did "not mind but more explanation of the day and the patron saint might have been given. Carmarthkn Printed and Published by the Proprietress M. Lawrence, at her Blue Street, FRIDAY, March 5th 1915