Collection Title: Brecon county times, Neath gazette and general advertiser
Institution: The National Library of Wales
Rights: The copyright status or ownership of this resource is unknown.
ONWARD IN ALSACE
ONWARD IN ALSACE. FURTHER POSTS CAPTURED. NORTHERN SUCCESSES. Satisfactory progress was reported durmg Friday at various points th the Western theatre of war. The French communique states that near Lomba-ertzyde the Allies' troops have captured a hill "fifty metres in front of our trenches occupied by the enemy," while ground' is also reported to have been gained near St. Georges. Near Steens-traat-o the enemy's trenches have been seriously damaged by bombardment. The road from La Boisselle to Aveluy is now in the hands of the French. Along the Aisne ground was gained to the west of the Bois des Zouaves, near Rheims, while the German works were pounded to pieces betwe-en Jonehery sttt Suippe and Souain. A violent infantry engagement, in -which the advantage was secured by the French, took place between Betheny and Prunay. ATTACKS IN THE ARGONNE. Vigorous and indecisive fighting continued in the Argonne. The Germans attacked with violence La. Haute Chevauehee, and blew up o of the French trenches by mines. They pushed the attack home with the bayonet, but were successfully repulsed except along a front of about 100 yards, where the French line was beaten back to a. line of trenches im- ■nediately in rear. V PROGRESS IN ALSACE. The French have made substantial pro- gress in Alsace. They have ousted the Ger- mans from their trenches on the side of Hill 425, and gained more ground on the slopes of tiiis hill. Further south, Burnhaupt-le.-Haut blats been secured, and some progress is re- ported towards Pont d'Aspach and Kahlberg. The enemy are reported to have abandoned their bombardment of Thann. It is stated in 'lie German official report that the French repeatedly attacked the heights west of Cernay, but were repuLsed with loss.
ENEMY AEROPLANES ACTIVE
ENEMY AEROPLANES ACTIVE. BOMBS DROPPED ON TOWNS. The enemy's aeroplanes have been extra- ordinarily active during the last few days, •ays the Times correspondent in Northern France. They have appeared over widely separated districts of the Nord and the Pas de Calais. Their visit to Dunkirk has been already recorded. On Wednesday morning one of them d-ropped three bombs on Strazeele. The airiiiaii continued his flight to Hazebrouck. Here- he was assailed, by the fire of the British guns, and British airmen went in pursuit of him. Unluckily he was able to escape. About the same hottr a German aeroplane flew over Armentierws and dropped three bombs. Later in the day the enemy threw several sheila into the town. On the same mori-iii. two German aero- planes flew over Abbeville. The first of them continued on. its way without paying any un- JeieomQ attention to the town. The second ropped a bomb, which fell in soft earth in the cemetery.
TERRIBLE GERMAN LOSSES
TERRIBLE GERMAN LOSSES. 40,000 KILLED AND WOUNDED IN ONE WEEK. In an account of thl fighting on the western front from December 25th to January 4th, the French Eye-Witness" gives details of the German losses. At six places the troops counted the bodies left on the ground by the enemy, and found them to number 1,500. In addition, near Ypres trenches full of dead were found1; in the Aisne region two separate parties, seemingly numerous, were destroyed as wholes; at Perthes the French counted aereral hundred bodies; at Steinbach there were corpses in every house. Furthermore, German attacks elsewhere cost very many tivec. As an instance the attempt to Tetake St. Georges, four enemy columns being there bea £$ii off by a terrible fire opened on them at close range, may be cited. If the full truth were known it would probably be found that between December 25th and January 4th the German lost on the western front 30,000 men killed and wounded.
MUD UP TO THE SHOULDERS
MUD UP TO THE SHOULDERS. In the sector of Arras., in the wood of rthonval, says a French official report, we Were obliged, without being attacked, to ■evacuate certain portions of our trenches, where our men were up to their shoulders in mud.
THE VICTORY IN THE CAUCASUS
THE VICTORY IN THE CAUCASUS. SPOILS OF THE BATTLE The following official communique from the Russian General Staff in the Caucasus was issued at Petrograd on Friday: In the fighting at Ardahan we defeated and dispersed those elements of the Ottoman Army which formed part of the 1st Army Corps quartered at Constantinople. A mim-ber of Baslu-Bazouks who had arrived from European Turkey, besides bands of the tribe of the Adjars who have embraced the Turkish cause, fought against us at Ardahan. We seized a large amount of war booty I and guno, of which one was a mountain gun with its team and all its gun crew and the officer in command. We also took prisoner several dozen officers, and many soldiers. We buried over 1.500 bodies of the enemy. A regiment of Siberian Cossacks delivered a br^liant charge, sabred several companies, and captured the flag of the 8th Regiment of Infantry. a is confirmed that the 9th Ottoman Corps, 30,000 strong, suffered a complete rout, hav- I ing been utterly destroyed near Sary Kamysh. We seized the entire artillery of this Corps, all the Generals, more than 300 officers, and several thousand Askaris (Irre,ul aiq)-tlxat is tG say, all that remained of the Corps. We continue to collect weapons and other trophies which lie in heaps everywhere—in the mountains, forests, and ravines-buried under snow. Dur energetic pursuit of the remains of the 10th Turkish Corps is continually adding to these trophies, and it is difficult as yet to esti- mate the amount of booty thus acquired.
FEAR OF THE BRITISH
FEAR OF THE BRITISH. The Germans continue their feverish activity on the Belgian coast in order to brirfg their defences to a state of perfection. Their fear of an English' landing is everywhere ap- parent. The Jtotterdamsrhe Courant states that- between 1,500 and 1,800 Germane are at Knocks, and about 3,000 at Heyst. Numerous mitrailleuses are posted on the 4 road from Krioc-ke to Heyst, and barbed wire prevents all civilian traffic. In thia region trench digging goes on incessantly.
SINOPE SHELLED. RUSSIANS SINK ALL SHIPS IN PORT. An official message from Constantinople, reived in Rome, states that the Russian Meet has bombarded Siuope, sinking all the ships in port. The Turks, for their part, have shelled Russian troops at MakriaIL •"Sinope is the only natural harbour on the north coast of Asia Minor. It has an arsenal and dockyard. The nearest railhead i. about 200 mi!s; distant in the interior, at Angora. ] It is offieialli stated that a large Turkish 4ransport w as sunk on January 2nd by a mine tti the entrance of the Bosphoras. Another ifftiisport, convoyed by tlie Turkish cruiser ligjidie. was sunk on January 5th in th« iMttet Sea between Sinope And Ttebiaond. I
GERMAN DEFEAT AT SOIBSONS
GERMAN DEFEAT AT SOIBSONS. FRENCH SET BACK IN ALSACE. ENEMY'S TRENCHES TAKEN. The chief events reported in the French communiques for Saturday and Sunday were gains near Perthes (on the Aisne), and near Soupir (east of Soissons), and the loss of Upper Burnhaupt, in Alsace. The Germans attacked on Friday the positions recently secured by the French on the west of Perthes, but were driven back so effectually that 400 yards more of their trenches were secured on the flank of the point from which they at- tacked, in spite of violent counter-attacks. At the same time, the French by a direct attack secured Perthes village. GERMAN TRENCHES TAKEN. Three lines of German trenches were taken on Friday at Soupir, and held against three counter attacks. The captured section ex- tends for about 600 yards. GERMANS RECAPTURE TOWN. Upper Burnhaupt, which was taker, by the French on Thursday, was recaptured by the Germans.,after being reinforced. Their losses were heavy. At other points on the front threatening Miilhausen the French have suc- cessfully maintained their positions. On Saturday the Germans attacked to the north- west of Wattweiler, near Thann, but were repulsed. ARTILLERY DUEL. From the North. Sea to the Oise there has been little activity except an interchange of artillery in which the Allies secured the ad- vantage. Some German tranches were pounded! to the south of Ypres and their bomb-thro we r3 silenced. SIOSSONS AGAIN BOMBARDED. SoiSSOThS has again been viciously bom- barded, and the Law Courts are stated to have been set on fire. To the south of Laon and Craonne the French artillery has inflicted considerable damage on the German works. Some ground has been gained near the farm of Beauaejour. HARD FIGHTING IN THE ARGONNE. The Germans continue to fight hard for the high road crossing the Argonne. On Friday the French lost one position for a time, but regained it by a counter-attack. On Saturday the Germans bombarded the French positions west of Boureuilles and near Four-des-Paris. The French artillery destroyed a German blockhouse near the latter village.
BATTLE OF THE SNOWS
BATTLE OF THE SNOWS. BEATEN TURKISH GENERAL'S STORY. The Petrograd Bourse Gazette publishes an interview with Issan Pasha, who, with four Turkish Major-Generals captured at the recent battle at Ardaghan, has arrived at Tiflis as a prisoner. Issan stated that the task of his army was to outflank the Russians, and bo take Sari Kamish and fortify the town. The Turkish defeat was due to the terrible climatic condi- tions. The corps were up to full strength, and the Turks fought as well as their num- bers permitted. The roads were so difficult and the cold so intense that the first detach- ment which reached Sari Kamish consisted of only 6,000 men. The Russians cut them off by occupying the passes. The Turks made a desperate attempt to break through by six- night attacks, and their numbers were re- duced to such an extent that Issan decided to surrender. The Turkish officers taken to Tiflis number 230, and inoJude fourteen general stff officers a.nd several Germans. The banner of the 8th Turkish Regiment has been taken to Tiflis and displayed before the Museum.
TURKS ADVANCE ON EGYPT
TURKS ADVANCE ON EGYPT. EXPEDITION BY ARMY OF SYRIA. The New York Herald's correspondent at Athene learns that telegrams have been re- ceived from Constantinople reporting that there is great military activity in Syria, and an advance on the Egyptian frontier is stated to be in preparation. The 8th Army Corps has left Damascus, its destination being stated to be the desert of Ettih. Six thousand camels have been captured for the expedition which is to be undertaken by the army of Syria. In this army 120 of the leading officers are Germans,
PLIGHT OF PRZEMYSL
PLIGHT OF PRZEMYSL. The Petrograd correspond^ of the Rome Messaggero telegraphs that an Austrian aero- plane which ascended from Przemysl fell into the hands of the Russians. The pilot wa.s carrying alarming news. There are 5,000 sick troops in the city; the thermometer registers 20deg. of frost, a-nd the soldiers have been burning the doors, windows, and furniture of the houses to warm themselves.
CAMEROONS FIGHTING. SUCCESS OF FRENCH TROOPS. M. Doumergue, French Minister for the Colonies, has received the following commu- eoqmu- nication from the Governor of French West Africa: "The Germans in great force vio- lently attacked, Edea, in the Carneroon:1. Twenty Europeans and fifty-four native sol- diers were left on the field. We seized a- machine gun and fifty rifles. Oar losses wire very slight." The British Contui has cabled his heartiest congratulations to M. Pouty, the Governor-G-ei.eral for West Africa, o;i the brilliant success of the French troops.
CLIMATIC CONDITIONS IN POLAND
CLIMATIC CONDITIONS IN POLAND. FIGHTING IN A SEA OF MUD. According to a telegram from Vienna an official statement from the Headquarters of the Austrian General Staff says: A continu- ous thaw, accompanied by torrential rain, has converted the whoie theatre of war in Poland and oaiioia into a sea cf mud. E*vc-ri the Carpathians are free of snow. Swollen mountain streams pour down from the sum- mits, flooding the valleys. These conditions, combined with dense fogs, have complei-.ij, stopped all military operations.
ATTEMPTED AIR RAID
ATTEMPTED AIR RAID. GERMAN AIRMEN OVER CHANNEL. According to a statement in the Times, six- teen. German aeroplanes were seen over the English Channel on Sunday morning, :;c1 obviously a raid on the coast was intended. It is assumed, however, that the pilots found the conditions against- continuing the:: journey, as they turned their machines and made for Dunkirk. There was an emergency mobilisation oi special constables in various parts of the London suburbs in consequence of the re- ported approach of hostile aircraft, but when the men assembled it was announced that the danger no longer existed.
TRANSVAAL REBELS CAPTURED
TRANSVAAL REBELS CAPTURED. It is officially announced, says a. Pretoria message, that a small band of rebels near the Bechuanaland border, who had vainly en- deavoured to escape to German Scuith-West Africa. haa been captured. The wh
THE AMERICAN NOTE
THE AMERICAN NOTE. SIR EDWARD PREY'S REPLY. A courteous reply h been sent- by Sir Edward Grey, Secretary foe Foreign Affairs, to the United States Note protesting against the seizures and detention of cargoes in neutral i-esjcls as an interference with American trade. The British Government adnjits the prin- ciple enunciated by the United States that a belligerent should not interfere' with the trade of neutrals unless such interfere n-ee is neces- sary to the bf-Miger-ent's national safety, but Sir Edlward Grey points out that such admis- sion cannot be taken as affecting our right of interference with contraband destined for the enemy's country. If we make mistakes we are willing to make redress. NEW YORK'S TRADE BOOM. Dealing with the plea that United1 States trade has been interfered with. Sir Edward gives figures of New York exports for Novem- ber, proving that the trade with neutral countries, far from having been interfered with, has increased enormously. In several cases the figures are trebled and quadrupled. COPPER IN COTTON. Cotton, Sir Edward Grey points out, has been kept on the free list, but we have been warned that copper will be concealed in cot- ton. He points out that from August to Janu- ary 773 steamships proceeded from the United States to neutral countries in Europe. Of these only forty-five cargoes were placed in the Prize Court, while of the ships them- selves only eight were so seized, one of these having since been released. Insistence on the right of seizure and search is emphasised. With regard to The embnrgo on rubber ex- ports from British Dominions. Sir Edward Grey points to the new trade in rubber export which has arisen in the United States since the war began. 0 PREPARED TO EXPLAIN. In conclusion, Sir Edward Grey states that the British Government are prepared, on the detention of cargo, to explain the case and to enter into an arrangement by which mistakes can be avoided. The whole reply (which is an interim reply and not final) is a straightfor- ward exposition of Great Britain's cas-o for the prevention of the importation of contra- band into Germany by way of neutral coun- tries and in neutral ships.
LOSS OF THE RUNO
LOSS OF THE RUNO. CAPTAIN'S CERTIFICATE SUSPENDED. The Board of Trade has given its decision at Hull in the case of the Wilson liner Runo, blown up whilst on a voyage with 300 passen- gers to Archangel. The court suspended the certificate of Cap- tain George Henry Lee for six months, find- ing that the loss of the vessel was due to his wrongful act in continuing on a course which increased his distance from the shore after passing Whitby and in later altering his course to the eastward in direct contravention of the Admiralty notice and the owners' in- struotions, whereby he brought his vessel over the enemy's minefield, where she struck a mine. The loss of twenty-seven lives was due to her striking the mine and to the panic amongst the passengers during the temporary incapacity of the master and the second officer after the explosion. The loss would have been greater but for the trawlers in the vicinity, and their crews were commended. In the judgment the excellent record1 of the captain was taken into consideration and' also the fact ithat the Runo was the first mercan- tile vessel to be mined.
GREATER SACRIFICES PRIMATE'S WARNING. ■ The Archbishop of York, who defifreredi an address at the Leeds Coliseum on Sunday, made reference to the possibility of conscrip- tion. There may," he said, "be many sacrifies d.e;man,d,e.d of us-Lgreater sacrifices. Still, we may trust the Government to know how far it can trust to the voluntary enthu- siasm of our men or how far it may be com- pelled to have recourse to that inherent principle in our Constitution that in the hour of extreme urgency every citizen may be called upon to defend his country and his home. All I say is that whatever sacrifices are needed we must be ready for them, be- cause this thing touches our national soul."
DROWNED IN DUSTBIN
DROWNED IN DUSTBIN. MURDER AND SUICIDE BY MOTHER. A man named Ham, employed at the works of Messrs. Maxim, returned to his home in Robert-street, Plumstead, and found his seventeen-months-old baby lying dead on a bed and his wife with her head, immersed in two or three feet of water in the dustbin. She had evidently taken the dustbin from the ground floor and drowned the child, after- wards laying it on the bed. Then she drowned herself. The couple had lived happily, but the woman had worried over the health of her children.
WAR AND TEMPERANCE
WAR AND TEMPERANCE. ABSINTHE FORBIDDEN IN FRANCE. President Poincare has signed two im- portant temperance Decrees, which, when ratified by Parliament, will render permanent the temporary prohibit i oil-which has been in force since the beginning of the war—of the sale of absinthe and similar liquors, and will lead, says the Times correspondent, to a con- siderable reduction in the number of drinking shops in France.
IN DEATH NOT DIVIDED
IN DEATH NOT DIVIDED. For fifty-four years Mr. and Mrs. Joshua Wells, a typical Lancashire yeoman and his wife, had been happily married, and in death they are not divided, the husband dying within a few hours of his wife's demise. The aged couple (Mr. Wells was seventy-seven and his wife three years younger) lived at Burseough, Ormskirk. Mrs. Wells was sud- denly taken ill, and died with tragic sudden- ness. Broken-hearted at the loss of his life partner, Mr. Wells collapsed, and expired in a few hours. Four years ago Mr. and Mrs. Wells celebrated their golden wedding.
CONTRABAND AT GIBRALTAR
CONTRABAND AT GIBRALTAR. The quantity of merchandise seized by the British authorities at Gibraltar considered1 to be contraband is calculated at 100,000 tons, says an. Algeciras correspondent. Great diffi- culties have arisen at Gibraltar through the immense aggregation of merchandise, as ware- house space is very limited. Quantities of this merchandise belong to Spanish subjects resident in towns in Spanish Morocco which before the declaration of war received, goods direct from the German steamers engaged' in the coasting trade. At the present moment transport expenses are enormous because transhipment must be effected at Gibraltar. The port authorities, the Chamber of Com- merce, and traders demand tha.t the Govern- ment should concede to Algeciras bonded warehouses where Moroccan goods might be .received, utilising Isla Verde for that purpose.
MAILS FROM A WRECK
MAILS FROM A WRECK. The postal authorities ait Ottawa have re- centlv come into possession- of the mails of the ill-fated Canadian Pacific liner Empress of Ireland, which was sunk in collision in the St. Lawrence on the night of May 29th last, with a loss of over 1.000 souls. The vessel went down in over 100ft. of water, five miles from shore. Divers have been at work for some monthri, and they have recovered part of the mails intended for this country and the Con- tinent.
SCIENCE NOTES AND NEWS
SCIENCE NOTES AND NEWS. A DEEP BORING IN TEXAS. In an unsuccessful effort to find water for the town a boring to a depth of 4,489ft. was carried out at Spur, Texas. This boring gives interesting information concerning the stratigraphy of the region. There are three well-marked divisions. From the surface down to a depth of 1,250ft. are found red sands, clays, marls, beds of gypsum, anhy- drite, and salt, including three beds of pure salt, 10ftv 5ft., and 9ft. in thickness. The next 2,850ft. consist of dolomite, with strata of anhydrite, sandstone, and shale. The lowest 389ft. are limestone and shale. ICE FRINGES ON PLANT STEMS. This curious phenomenon occurs on plants of comparatively few species, and appears not to have attracted much attention. It has, however, been described, with attempts at explanation, by Sir John Herschel, John Le Conte, and a few others. In the Journal of the Franklin Institute, W. W. Cobkntz, of the U.S. Bureau of Standards, reports the re- sults of his own observations on the ice fringes of dittany (Cuuila mariana). The fringes form in freezing weather, especially in the autumn, in the form of delicate loops, ribbons, or curled plat-es of thin ice, ".vb;ch are evidently not a form of hoarfrost, as ill-3 amount of ice is much in excess of that which could be condensed out of the atmosphere. The moisture is undoubtedly supplied by the plant itself, but the MECHANISM OF THE PROCESS was obscure pricr to Cobieutz's observationt.. These seem to prove that the moisture is exuded from the stems by capillary attrac- tion, and the phenomenon is therefore similar in origin to the ground-frost formed on the surface of wet soils, except that in the latter case a particle of gravel usually forms the nucleus to start the congelation. When the moisture within the stem is frozen fringes cannot form, nor do they occur when the ground is frozen to the depth of an inch or more. The size of the ice fringes and the height to which they extend above the ground depend upon the rate of evaporation from the stem and upon the amount of moisture in the ground. Fringes form most readily and abundantly on stems having a great number of sap-tubes; differences in the anatomy of their stems explain why some species form fringes while others do not. t TO EXTINGUISH FIRE SCIENTIFICALLY What is the right thing to do at the right time to prevent heavy losses by fire? The putting out of a fire depends upon bringing into operation either of two conditions: All air should be excluded, and the fire will die out for want of oxygen; or the burning materials should be cooled below the point of ignition, writes C. V. Redman in the Scientific American. Such ready-to-hand methods as throwing a blanket or coat tightly over a burning object to exclude the air, placing a lid on a pan or pot of flaming grease, or covering a burning object with a fine non-combustible powder, viz., washing soda, fino sand, clay, &c., will in general put out the fire. Burning gasoline is extinguished by sliding a flat gla.ss plate over the vessel, thus exclud- ing the air. The flame is severed from the gasoline as if it were cut off by a knife. The popular and altogether false idea that such liquids as kerosene, gasoline, alcohol, benzol, &c., are in themselves explosive, and will burn in the absence of air is erroneous, and it should never be forgotten that these liquids CEASE TO BURN WHEN THE AIR IS CUT OFF. The cover should always be made to slide along horizontally, for if it be dashed down on the flame from above, the rush of air will cause the flame to burst out in all directions around the plate towards the operator as well as away from him, and may set fire to the clothing or hair. The second principle, i.e., the chilling of the burning materials to a temperature below the point of ignition, is brought into effect when cold sand, clay, snow, or water is thrown upon a burning surface, or when a rapid current of air removes the heat more rapidly than the combustion is producing the same. There is a temperature for every sub- stance below which it will not burn, e.g., if wood be chilled below 155deg. Cent., i.e., 311deg.*Fahr., it will not readily burn. Everyone is familiar with the blowing out of matches by the wind, which cools the match below the point of ignition. Fire rangers put out spreading grass fires in this way, by beating the burning grass into the colder earth and cbilling the stubbie BELOW THE BURNING POINT. Nor will iron burn if kept below a red or even white heat. To be sure, everything burns—i.e., oxidises at almost any tempera- ture. Wood weathers and decays at ordinary temperatures, and iron rusts and oxidises in the cold air of winter, but very slowly, so that we do not ordinarily consider or think of it as burning. The word burning or com- bustion is used here in the popular sense of being oxidised at such a rate that the. chemi- cal reaction is accompanied by a flame or a visible glowing surface. In most fire extinguishers, either or both of these principles are involved. When water is thrown upon a fire to put it out, the result is plainly to cool the burning materials below the point of ignition, although when the material is flooded with water the air is also excluded. When a fire extinguisher, like soda, is thrown upon a burning surface, the result is more or less twofold. The cold powder helps to chrW the flaming material below the point of ignition, nd at the same time excludes the air by two means: first, by giving off carbon dioxide, and, second, by covering the burning surface with a non-inflammable material. In recent years, quantities of chlorinated hydrocarbons have been prepared from the waste chlorine in the manufacture of caustic soda. The lower hydrocarbons saturated with chlorine are fire extinguishers OF A VERY VALUABLE TYPE, and are sold under many trade names. Car- bon tetrachloride is the lowest and the most common of the eeries. It is also sold as a lion inflammable liquid to take the place of gasoline, benzol, alcohol, for removing grease stains from clothes. The special Jal ue of carbon tetrachloride consists in its# non-corrosive properties, e.g., it may be pom-ed into a burning motor with- out doing the motor any after damage, such aiS rusting, and the f:re is immediately extin- guished. In this respect it is superior to water as a fire extinguisher. However, tetra- chloride is of little value in extinguishing flames from vessels containing burning alco- hol, jic-jtone, or other liquids with which the carbon tetrachloride docs not mix retidiiy. Fires of this kind can be Lest smothered out by cutting off the- air. It has not occurred to the reader, perhaps, that sometimes it may be positively DANGEROUS TO THROW WATElt ON a flaming material. Yet such is the actual condition. For example, if liquid paraffin be on fire, the addition, of water may cause an action similar to an explosion. The hot paraffin floats upon- the water and prevents the escape of the steam, until suddenly the steam escapes with an explosive rush, carry- ing the flaming paraffin in a burst of blaze which almost fills the room, and the burning proceeds more violently than before. The same phenomena is noticed with, all burn.ing oils and easily combustible liquid organic substances which float on water. Burning benzol, benzine, naphtha, gasoline, kerosene, acetone. &c., all burn in the same way, so that for these fires water may not be used; but sand is one of the BEST-KNOWN EXTINGUISHERS. Cold s-arid thrown on the burning material chills it below the ignition point, and the fire is put out. A barrel of fine sand standing in a readily accessible place is a most- valuable fire ex- tinguishe,r to possess. If the sand- is fine and clean, it is easily scattered over the burning surface and chills the surface below the point of ignition as well as excluding the air. The sa.nd is easily swept up and removed after the fire has been put out, and everything that has not been damaged by the fire remains in perfect condition.
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