Collection Title: Merthyr Pioneer
Institution: The National Library of Wales
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After the War What
After the War What? The Real Enemy of tne Working-Class of Europe. By A. FENNEP. BROCKWAY, (Editor of the "Labour Leader.") The optimistic apologists of the war would have us believe that it will end not merely the warfare of militai;m but also the warfare of industrialism. By some miracle of beneficent heaven, militarism is to liberate us from mili- tarism, an orgy of hatred ia to inaugu- rate a kingdom of love. Through the destruction of all that is beat in civi- lisation. a nobler civilisation is to be brought into being. The Nation's Uneasy Conscience. It cannot be so. and those who are trying to calm their consciences by flaying it will be iso KNOW in their heart of hearts it cannot be so. If militarism is to be ended it will be! ended not by war. but by a profound revulsion from war. If a social order founded on love is to be established. it will be established not by hatred, but by a repentance of hatred. The truth is the soul of the nation is troubled by the wrong that is being done in Europe, and is endeavouring to quieten the voice that will not be stilled by all manner of self-assurances that once this crime is committed it will mend its ways and be all that a Christian civilisation should be. We hope it may be so, but, the danger past, the sinner has an unfortunate habit of forgetting his good inten- tions Oartain it ia that, just as militarism will not be overthrown if the settle- ment of hostilties is left in the hands of the militarists who occasioned them, so the poverty and degradation of the existing sociaJ system will not be abolished if the control of the na- tion's affairs is left in the hands of those who profit by it. Capitalism will be Capitalism aiter the war, and Capitalists will be Capitalists. At the present time it PAYS the employing and governing class to be generous to the workers, to voice tributes to their character and courage, to over- look to some degree the difference of caste and class, to prate about a united nation." Britain belongs to them; the land and the fulness there- of THEIlt country is in danger. But even now, beneath all the v enc-or of praise and jftati tude, the true relation of the wealthy class to the working claflb is apparent. Despite the sense of fellowship which is supposed to ani- mate the nation, the rich still spend on one meal as much as would feed a labourer's family for a week, and on one costume as much as would clothe a labourer's family for a year. To the national fund raised to relieve distress they have not contributed 2 per cent. of their vast income, and much of what has been contributed has been sent as an advertisement of patriot- ism by firms which have reduced the wages of their employees and compell- ed a staff curtailed by enlistments to do the full complement of work. And who doubts that. if the thousands of workers in Britain to-day who are compelled to lead a pariah's existence, begging the crumbs which fall from the rich man's table picking up food where they can, dared to revolt ag- ainst their lot the wealthy and gov- erning clasa would call upon the troops to shoot them down with little more compunction than they would call up- on them to s hoot down German work- ing men? For what purpose ie the Civilian Force being organised in all the large centres of population? To withstand a German invasion or to suppress any signs of rebellion on the part of the working claas of this coun- try should hunger and cold. this win- ter time, make them at long last im- patient." Have British workers so soon forgotten Dublin. Llanelly. Liverpool, the Rand and Feat-herstone? Is the Nation United r The war between Capital and Lab- our had its beginnings in the enslave- ment of the first captured savage; it is the war which was continued bet- ween lord and labourer during serf- dom it is the war which, since the industrial revolution, has been waged unceasingly between the employing and employed classes. At the present time the working men of the diffe- rent countries of Europe are being ur- ged by their masters, and even by their own leaders, to forgot their com- mon quarrel and to shoot down each other, but though a truce is sup- posed to have been called, this war still goes on as remorselessly as ever. It is not, unless the working el," aocl- tually rebel, a war of bullet and bayo- net. Hunger is the weapon the em- ploying class wields. "Surrender to us one-half, two-thirds, of the wealth you produce," they say, "—or starve." That weapon they continue to wield in spite of all the cant of a united nation, and b.- it compel thou- sands of labourers to struggle for exist- ence on wages which barely keep body and soul together. The truce" which has heen declared between Capi- tal and Labour merely means that that the working class have agreed to bear unprotestingly the sufferings upon which the employing class grow wealthy, and to unite, at their bidd- ing. to maim and kill the simila,dy-ex- ploited workmen of Germany. The warfare of industrialism is due to the fact that a CLASS in the com- munity owns the means by which the needs of the ENTIKE community are created. By reason of this dominance a comparative few are enabled to Jevy toll on the labour of the many, and inevitably there is a struggle between the employing and the employed classes as to the amount of the im- position. In addition to this main through fe,,ii- of struggle, the many, through fear of dismissal a.nd consequent starvation, on the one hand. or through an anxiety to gain promotion in their masters' service, on the otbcr btnd, are led to struggle against each other; and even within the master class itself there is competition to secure the largest share of profits, comes about the struggle between man and man and between class and class which mars modern civilisation even in times of peace. How to Stop Class War. There is only one way by which the warfare of industrialism can be ended. The relations which have led to that warfare, the relation of master to slave, of lord to serf, of employer to employed, must be abolished. Those relations have existed in the past and do exist in the present, because the community has been and is divided into a possessing class and a non- possessing class, a propertied class and a property less class. They will cease to exist only when the power of dominance is taken from the few. only when the means by which the needs of the community are supplied are held by the community itself. When the people own the means of their ex- istence (the land, the means of trans- port, and the industrial system) and, through elected public representatives, control them in the interests, not of a class or section, but of all. then shall we be in reality a united nation. We shall discover that without over- working anyone there is plenty for all, and co-operation will replace competi- tion as the principle of human rela- tions. Thus will the warfare of in- dustrialism be ended. When Socialists have urged this solution of the industrial problem, they have been met bv appeals to "the rights of property," and Liberty and Property Defence Leagues" and "Anti-Socialist Unions" have been formed to protest the possessions of the wealthy from despoiling hands of working-class agitators. The war has, at least, destroyed this fetish of the sanctity of private property. When the military authorities have needed land, or houses, or motors, or horees, they have TAKEN what they needed and paid what they liked, The need of the community has been realised to be of more importance thaa the con- venience of any individual—and no one has proteated. That is the Socialiist view of private property. We bring this indictment aganist the owners of the land and the industrial system—they have faited to supply the needs of the community. Therefore, since the needs of the community are of more importance than the' con- venience of any individual, they should, with due compensation (more generous, certainly, than the War Office has often paid!) be divested of that T=t of the people and the com- munity itself should begin to utilise it, for the benefit of the people. The Nationalised Railways. When the war began the Govern- ment discovered that it was essential that the railway systems should be under its control in order to facilitate the movement of the trooos. So. in the twinkling of an eye. the companies were relieved of their management and the State assumed absolute ro- sixmsibility. Before the war is ended the Government will be compelled, jf it is to prevent starvation, to take control of certain of the staple in- dustries as well. It. has already fixed a. maximum price for foodstuffs. But it will have to go very much further than that. It will have entirely to supervise the production, the storage, a.nd distribution of food if the wolves of hunger are to be kept back from thousands of homes. The bread supply j most certainly ought to be communa- lised. Since we all need bread why not the Government, as representing all of us. provide us with broad free of (!h.Lr_ l' A revolutionary idea.. per- haps. but what can be said in opposi-I tion to it? And more than that must be done. In Lancashire there is terrible distress in the cotton industry. Thousands of men and women are workleæ aifcl wageless. Hunger Bt?r. them in the face. ?Jany thousanda more, who live little above the poverty line in the best of times, are working "short time and are suffering bitterlv. And yet all over the country people are in need of materials which these workers manufacture. Here again, we suggest, is a case where the principle the Government has applied to the nation's Army should be applied to the nation itself. "The need of the community is more than the convenience of the indivi- dual. cry well, then let the. Government take control of the cotton industry and adapt the machinery so that the operatives may be employed in the production of the needs of the people. Let them begin by making a present to every child at school of use- ful garments which many of them lack. That step alone would necessi- tate the employment of thousands of the women whose workless condition is so grave a problem at the present time, not only in the spinning and wearing industries hut in the clothing indlistry genera 11 y. Any steps which are taken during the war to replace the private control of industry by public control must not be retraced at the end of the war. The railways must remain under State management, and State owner- ship must accompany State control. At the present time the Government, whilst relieving the companies of all responsibility in manacrm" the rail- ways. has agreed to continue to pay their s hareholders' dividends. That must cease. The companies must be compensated, but when compensation has been paid the railways and the re- ceipts from the railways must belong to 11/' entire community, not to any section of it. But we confess we have not much faith in the permanent value of measures of social reform adopted hur- riedly in times of crisis. If the pub- lic control of industry is to yield all that we hope from it the public must demand that control because it under- stands that the difference between slavery and freedom. Only then will public representatives be imbued with the spirit of public service, only then will a sense of the co-operation of each for all begin to replace the poisonous incentive of compptit on for personal gain which permeotes the industrial system to-day. Women as Equals. I If the warfare of individualism is to cease the people miiit be educated and aroused. They must awaken from their present indifference, and, relying on themselves, must fling from offioe those who maintain the present sys- tem. And if a nobler civilisation is to be constructed, we must no longer re- ject the proffered help of women. Once it was argued that women must not be recognised as citizens because, it was said, they are comparatively use- It-as in time of war. No longer can -N <) longer can that be said. To meet the needs of the nation which the war has occasioned, the Government, despite ita refusal to concede the women's claims, has been forced to call women to its aid. Upon Cabinet Committees are sitting. All ove the country they are spending themselves in a noble effort to stem back destitution an4 disease. When the war is over, if destitution and disease are to be banished from our midst for ever, we must accept them. we must welcome them, as our comrades and equaJs in every sphere of the State. Then may we move towards the day when both the war of militarism and the war of industrialism shall be but evil memories. —A. FEEU BHOCKWAT in the "Labour Leader." I
I Trecyoon Husbands Arrears
I Trecyoon Husband's Arrears. MARRIED WIDOW WITH EIGHT I CHILDREN. The magistrates were engaged for a long time at Newport on .Friday in hearing a charge against Trevor l'earce, tinworker, now of Treeynon, A berdare, of neglecting to pay 418 due to his wife, Emma Pearoe (of St. Mary-street, Newport), under an order made at Newport on July 27, 1904. The wife was represented by Mr. Arthur Roberts (from the office of Messrs. Lyndon Moore and Cooper); the husband by Mr. John Moxon. The marriage took place in 1904 (in the same year as the separation), when the applicant was a widow with eight children. One child waa born of this marriage. After the first separation there had been periods of intermittent cohabitation from 1906 to 1913. The wife stated that nothing had been paid on the order, and defendant had not lived with her since October, 1913 Mr. Moxon said defendant had served three terms of imprisonment for non-payment of arrears, the last occasion being in the spring of the pre- sent year. But he was discharged be- fore completing the term on an order from the Home Secretary, on the ground that the imprisonment was wrongful on consideration of the evi- dence placed before the magistrates who heard the case. Since then the defendant had applied to the Abertil- lery justice to discharge the order, as the parties bad been living at Aber- tillerr. The application had been twice adjourned, the last time only a, few days ago, in order that the pre- aent'caKe might not be prejudiced. Mr. Moxon submitted that no order for payment of arrears which had accrued since cohabitation had been resumed or had been discharged by imprison- ment could be made The Presiding Justice (Mr. G. R. Martyn) said there appeared to be no ititelition on the part of the man to pay, and *t he order, which had never been discharged, would have to be en- forced. The Bench ordered payment of tlg and court costs, ora, month's imprisonment. Mr. Moxon said the man had no in- tention of paying for good reasons.
Nuisance at Nixonville I
Nuisance at Nixonville I "WORK FOR UNEMPLOYED." I Alluding to a paragraph in the Medi- cal Oiffcer's Report regarding a. nuis- anoe arising from the sewer at Nixon- ville, Mrethyr Vale, at the meeting of the Health Committee on Wednes- day. Coun. Enoch Williams asked if everything was being done to hasten the work of abating the nuisance. The people in the district had to suffer a great deal from this nuisance. Coun. Dan Thomas: Might I sa,y that we have an agreement with the owners there that the nuisance will be a bated at once if there are any com- plaints. Dr. Duncan: That is not the same place as Coun. Williams refers to. It is at Nixonville. Coun. Dan Thomas: Oh. I know. The water is stagnant at that spot. Coun. H. M. Lloyd (Mayor), who presided, said that the work was be- ing hastened. Coun. Thomas: I Contend that there is a lot of work there and elsewhere in the borough whitch we could give to the unemployed npw. Coun. Francis: Yes that is true. We are not doing anything. M ay or: We are doing all we can. But there is no unemployment. I know that all the firms in the borough are prepared to give all the employ- ment they can. Coun. Francis I say there is plenty of unemployment. I gave you a. list myself. Mayor I know, and there is work for them in other departments, but there is but little unemployment in the borough. I have made inquiries. Coun. Francis still maintained that there was considerable unemployment.
IMr Robert Harriss Offer
Mr. Robert Harris's Offer. MEDICAL OFFICER TO REPORT. Mr. T. Aneuryn Rees (Town Clerk) read a letter from Mr. Robert Harris, scavenging contractor to the Corpora- tion, at the Health Committee on Wednesday, asking the Committee to make a concession in view of the in- creased cost of fodder, etc., owing to the war, which made it difficult for him to maintain his contract with the Committee. As an alternative Mr. Oomm i i tt-t,nati v e -N i r. Harris offered to sell all he possessed in the way of horses, five cottages, and other material to the Corporation for scavenging purposes. The Committee decided that Dr. Duncan, the Medical Officer, should report on the matter.
Tirphil Collier Takes the Cake
Tirphil Collier Takes the Cake. INCIDENT ON THE RAILWAY AT FOCHRIW. Patrick Donovan, a Tirphil oollier, was charged at Merthyr on Friday with the theft of a parcel from a guard's van. Mr. Lyndon Cooper (Newport) who prosecuted for the company, said that these cases were sometimes difficult to detect, but he thought that in this case there would be little trouble. A Mrs. Jamas had bought bread and cake at Dowlais, and the parcel was put in the guard's van. It was still in the van when the train stopped at Fochriw, but after the train left the station it had disappeared, and the guard ap- plied the vacuum brake. Defendant, who got in at Dowlais, was seen on the platform at Fochriw. with a par- cel. There was no narool in de-1 fendant's compartment, but in the next—with only a low partition be- tween—the miming parcel was found. Defendant gave his wrong name and address atbe time. Evidence bear- ing this. out was given. Defendant, who was represented by Mr. Goo. Llewellyn (Messrs. James, Charles, and Davies, Merthyr) denied any knowledge of the parcel. The pplice officer in the case (Police Constable Stacev) admitted having re- fused the names and addresses of wit- nesses to defendant, stating that he thought it would be against his duty. The Deputy-Stipendiary (Mr. R. A. Griffith): Why ? That is sheer non- sense. In future I advise you to assist thee people as much as possible, be- cause, though you have taken them into custody, the case is not proved. Defendant was fined 40/ the De- puty-Stipendiary saying the Bench had not the slightest doubt that ,he took the parcel.
Theatre Royal. I Mr. Wilkinson certainly tries to please his patrons, for he weekly pre- sents a remarkable series of entertain- tainments. Last week "A Message from Mars." This week a full variety oom- pany. Next week Pinero's masterpiece. This week, in a programme of thirteen turns, there is an admirable succes- sion of engaging performances, includ- in a nautical sketch, entitled A Sailor's Love." Some excellent musical turns, plenty of humour and at the top of the bill" The Grea.t Adler." This gentleman gives, among others, two very sensational feats, viz., "The Cage of Death," and "The Siberian Torture." In the first he is securely fastended in a cage of locks, ropes. etc., which is fullv charged with elec- tricity. from which he extricates him- self quickly, notwithstanding every precaution taken by members of the audience to secure his detention, and in the latter, in full view of the audi- ence. he releases himself from a Si- berian jacket, which is the latest thing in successful invention in vogue in Si- beria for adequately disposing of a Si- berian prisoner. We understand that a number of local entities have challeng- ed him to a test to-night (Friday), which he has accepted subject to a £ 10 penalty for failure. The Second Mrs. Tanqueray." Merthyr playgoers will welcome the opportunity of renewing acquaintance with Sir Arthur Pinero. prince of dra- matists. through The Second Mrs. Tanqueray," a masterpiece which will be presented on Monday next and du- ring the week at the Theatre Royal by Mr. Robt. Burnett's Company. The names suggest a caste of more than ordinary strength. Miss Ethel Griffies. of whom frequenters of the Royal re- tain pleasant memories will be seen as the wayward and erring Paula, a part for which her dramatic and emotional powers render her particularly suit- able, "Ailtyrev Tanquerav" will be played by Mr. Edward Cooper, who is als# well known in South Wales; and Cay ley Drummle," the cvnical but kindly man of the world, will be plav- ed by Mr. Burnett himself. For the part of Ellean, Tanqueray's daugh- t-er by his first wife. Miss Denise Panic has been selected. The lesser parts have all been entrusted to artistes of tried ability, and the scenery and appoint- ments are a reproduction of those used in the recent revival of the play at the St. James' Theatre.
ttr see you have been wwearing my dresses again. Jane said her mistress, ought to be ashamed of yourself." "1 was. mum. Jack said 'if I wore such clothes again he would never speak to me any more." < "You have thre-E, pairs of glasses, prof(>Or?" Yes: I use one for read- ing. one for distance, and the third to find the others! m ¥ Ethel: c; Jack Roxleigh is good- looking enough, but, I don't care for his wa.ys." Marvis: Never mind about his wa.ys my dear; think of his means."
I THE SECRET OF LIFE
I THE SECRET OF LIFE. Strip the earth of its thin i)olllcle of ,-Oil, thinner with reference to the mass than is the peel to the apple, and you have stripped it of its life. Or. rob it of its watery vapour and carbon dioxide in the air. both stages in the evolution, and you have a dead world. The huge globe swings through space only as a mass of insensate rock. So limited and evanescent is the world of living matter, so vast and enduring is the world of the non-living. Looked at in this way. in the light of physical science. life. I repeat, seems like a mere passing phase of the cosmic evolution, a flitting and temporary stage which it passes through in the procession of changes on the surface of a cooling planet. Between the fiery mist of the nebula and the frigid and consolidated globe there is a brief span, ringing over about one hundred and twenty degrees of temperature, form absolutely the whole scale of tempera- ture, from absolute zero to the white heat of the hottest stars, it is bout a hand's-breadth compared to a mile. Life processes ceas.e but chemical and mechanical processes go on for ever. Life is as fugitive and uncer- tain as the bow in the elouds, and, like the bow in the clouds, is confined to a limited range of conditions. Like the bow also, it is a perpetual crea- tion, a contract becoming, and its source is not the matter through which it is manifested though inseparable from it. The material substances of life, like the raindrops, is in perpetual flux and change; it hangs always on the verge of dissolution, and vanishes when the material conditions fail, to be renewed again when they return. We know—do we not?—that life is as literally dependent upon the material elements; but whether the physical conditions sum up the whole truth about it. as they do with the bow, is the insoluble question. Science says Yes, but our philosophy and our reli- gion say No. The poets and the pro- phets say No. and our hopes and aspirations say No. Where, then, shall we look for the key to this mysterious thing we call life? Modern biochemiaty will not listen to the old notion of a vital force—that is only a metaphysical will- o'-the-wisp that leaves us floundering In he. quagmore. If I question the foroes about me what answer do I get ? Molecular attraction and re- plusion seem to say, It is not in 118; we are as active in the clod as in the flower." The four principal elements —oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen and car- ban-may, "It is not in us, because we are from all eternity, and life is not; we form only its physical basis." Warmth and moisture say, "It is not in us; we are only its faithful nurses and handmaidens." The 8UD says: "It is not in me; I shine on dead worlds as wel.1 I but quicken life after it is planted." The stars say, "It is not in us: we have seen life come and go among myriads of worlds for untold ages." No questioning of the heavens above nor of the earth be- low can reveal to us the secret we are in question of.—John Burroughs, in Harper's Magazine for August."
ITHE CRICKET ON THE HEARTHI
THE CRICKET ON THE HEARTH. The best-known member of the cricket family, of course, is the house-cricket—Milton's "Oricket on the Hearth." In one sense it is the most remarkable of the crickets. for it is an example of an insect that has voluntarily given up an out-door life. and take up its abode in hmuan dwellings. Where was the original! home of the house-cricket no one knows. It is common aa a household insect all over Europe, and indeed, over a considerable part of the Old World, from which it appears to have made its way with human colonists to North America; but it i not known anywhere to lead an outdoor life. Occasionally it may be heard, and sometimes seen, out of doors in the warmer days of summer, but then al- ways in the immediate neighbourhood of a house: and it may be surmised that it is then in the act of migrating to a house that offers greater accom- modation than the one it has left. We have known individual crickets *.& seek to start a colony in a house that was unoccupied by its kind, but after a day or two to depart again, pro- bably the builder had not made pro- per provision for them in the kitchen. It likes a house where, because it is to be hidden by the installation of the "range." the bricklayer has not been too particilar to finish off the brick- work of the kitchen fireplace, a.nd has neft numerous chinks unfilled by mortar, where the warmth-loving cricket can find cosy lodgment. Or a new house where the new mortar may be seai 1 tunnelled. In such quarters it remains quietly all day. and at evening emerges into the room and efeds upon such scraps of food as it can find. As one might expect in a creature that spends much of its life in close proximity to a kitchen fire, the cricket suffers from thirst, and one of its principal searches at night is for the means of allaying it. It is sometimes found drowned in the milk jug or in vessels of water. To different persons the song of the cricket—both of the house and the field—is various'y considered a pleasure and a nerve-racking infliction. Many of those who would rather be without the music would yet take no steps to dislodge the musician, from a belief that its presence in a house is an omen of good which might be diverted by the peorsecut-ion of the crickets. The developmental history of the cricket follows the same li-nf, as that of the grass-hoppers. The hind body of the female ends in a long. slender tube by means of which she is able to deposit her eggs in sa fe crevices. From these hatch out minute. ^jx-legged creatures, much like herself, except that they have no wings. They run and leap, and feed and grow. casting their skina five or six times to permit the latter process, and only at the last moult acquire wings.—From Marvels of Insect Life" (Hutchinson and Co V. w
WHEN WOMEN SUCCEED
WHEN WOMEN SUCCEED. There is no longer any place for merely pretty "shirkers" in the busi- ness world. We talk no more of luck in women's work. Luck counts of little or nothing in these days of strenuous competition when, in most professions, women command the same prices as men. and ability alone has won them that distinction Only the really competent woma.n. too per>ervering woman, the woman who takea pains. rises from the ruck and reaches the goal. Social "pushing" may advance her a few steps on the way. but it will be no more. If she "wins through." it is because of her adequacv. It is very largely owing to her possession of high ideals, to her concientiousness in dealing with pro- blems great and small, to her scrupu- lous attention in detail, that she has now successfully encroached upon what in the past was considered man's Sol(- orovince .or has developed her stance—that enormous sphere of in- own career in feminine lines by means of business faculties which, a com- paratively short time ago, would have been termed unfeminine. Take the advertising world, for in- stance—that enormous sphere of in- fluence which women are now invading with such amazing confidence. Only the ignorant public belittles adver- isement. Those who know—statesmen and politicians—realise that the open- ing out of a vast continent like Clanada is largely due to its medium Juclicious advertisement, honourable advertisement does its work in build- ing empires. Men of mark in the advertising world are men who. had they adopted otter professions, would have been to the fore not only in literature and art. but in law and the army. army. For the ty»e of brain which in crow-.examination-to give one example—reduces its opposing witnesses to pulp, belongs to the type of men who, when oonsulted as to ex- tension of some cofnmercial enter- prise. at once seizes upon its weak spot and knows how to eliminate it, or-to change the meta.phor-atrate- gically, as in the case of a groat general, outlines those tactical move- ments b ywhich threatened defeat and rout are turned to victory". Men like these are the fiTst. to acknowledge that the entry of women, into the career of advertising has' made for its increased dignitv and for ths betterment of its i"ls.-Franow Oifden, in the Woman at Hoioe.'4
OUR POLITE POLICE
OUR POLITE POLICE. — When I saw a policeman put u p his right hand and stand in the middle of the street to atop the rushing crowds of vehicles, my admiration for that limb of the law and order was unbounded. Ever since I have loved London oplioemen. They are so fine and fat and polite. All Chinese admins fat people, for fat is a sign of pros- perity and contentment and happi- ness I wondecr if every palioemafl is happy? It is said that the only "y to be happy in this world is to make others happy,* and policemen must make a great many people happy every day therefore they must be the happiest body of men in England f And yet I fancy I have heard a song or quotation which says "A police- man's lot ia not a happy one." At any rate they seem to be walking ency- clodtedias guidea. philisophers, and friends to the public.—J. Kong Sing, in "The Chinese Review."
SPIES OUTWITTED. Every Foreign Office in Europe acts on the theory that an army of spies is constantly on the alert to steal its secrets, and infinite precautions are taken to baffle their efforts. Very shortly after the first use of blottMg- paper it was discoveired that it was quite possible to cause a blotting-pad to give up jealously-guarded secrets by simply holding it in front of* a mirror. Long after all the commercial wtrrkl had forgotten the existence of such a thin. the British Foreign- Office used a sand-shaker to dry its im- portant written documents." Then specially-manufactured ink-blotting paper was used, but this was not found to be absolutely spy-proof, and a return to the sand-shaker Vas con- templated, when someone suggested the simple expedient of a small absorbent roller. These rollers have since been used for drying diplomatic documents. When such a roller has been run up and down a document one* or twice the cleverest spy in the world is at liberty to try his hand at deciphering the im- pressions^
WHAT TO GROW
WHAT TO GROW. Timely s ti g.L,, e toris for cn>nrin^ the food supply in the future are pur for- ward by the Royal Horticultural Society. which has issued a pamphlet addressed to all who have gardens or plots of land not already bearing use- ful crops. They are advised to tow turnips, carrots, beetroot, onio-n, cab- bage. Advice is a Iso given to plant all varieti of broccoli, savoys, kale. vab- bage. cauliflower, late celery, and leeks, and to bottle as much fruit of the plum and damson variety as pos- sible. Do these things now." savs flIO circular, "to increase the food supply for yourself and others."
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