Collection Title: Merthyr Pioneer
Institution: The National Library of Wales
Rights: The copyright status or ownership of this resource is unknown.
By F.R.H.S. I
In the Kitchen GardenI
In the Kitchen Garden. I TH E POTATO. I Soil Culture. A good way working off Christ- I mas indigestion is by gardening. Dig- ging with spade and fork is one of the finest all-round exercises. The practice they get in trenching may he a rea- son why our Tommies keep so fit. Then there is some virtue in the scent of newly-turned earth which is of im- mense benefit to the lungs. Prepar- ing for next season's crops ought to be attended to as soon as possible now. A complete article in making ready the site?, sprouting the tubers, planting, and so on. is likely to be more use- ful than occasional paragraphs so the culture of potatoes, from the begin- ntg until the foliage is three-quarters grown, shall be described this week and next. The cultural details are the same whether one row of each sec- tion is grown in the gardeti or several on an allotment. Small gardeners must be warned, though, against planting them in a border under the shelter of a closed fence, since an abundance of fresh air and sun on all sides, which is only to be had in the middle of the garden, is a preventive of disease. The two principal diseases are the "blight" (phvtophthora infestans) and scab." Healthy and properly pre- pared soil is one preventive of both troubles. If practicable, the ground should be bastard-trenched, and the animal manure used only in the sec- ond spit. a two-inch layer being am- ple. Take out the top spade's depths, fork half-decayed to old horse dung in- to the whole of the second spit, and then retik-ii the top-f-oil..Further, finer and earlier crops can he had if the top spiv is enriched with a special potato "fertil iser. This suggestion is not ne- cessary to health, however. W here readers are not inclined to double-dig. but prefer simple-digging, i.e.. working the groiwid one foot deep. it is essential to general healthiness that the animal manure be thoroughly decayed. A prevalent cause of scab is any condition of natural manure just beneath and around the tubers. With simple digging, the better plan is to use the artificial alone before planting and. directly the tubers are in, lightly fork an inch dressing of black manure into the surface, but on- ly so that the stuff is barely covered with mould. As to the best time for applying the artificial, the present holiday is opportune for the digging leave the sites lumpy, for it is right- ly said that "frost is God's plough"; and prick the chemical a month be- fore planting. Another item in the cultivation of the soil is the value of lime for heavy ground. Immediately following dig- ging we advise treating wet soils to a good colouring of lime. which may be fresh or slaked. Lime has a physical and chemical actioli. The physical is to open the pores of clay and make the passage of water easier. In an- other phrase, the tendency is to ren- der a sticky medium more porous. The chemical effects of liming ground are threefold: Manure-sick soils have their harmful acids neutralised. Sec- ondly, heavy ground always contains much dormant food. This food cannot be used by plants until converted into other substances. Lime unlocks potash and nitrogen. Thirdly, lime destroys insects, and is a remedy for fungoid pests. Studying the physical action of time and the three chemical ones, the natural conclusion is that light ground is better net limed. The reasons are that it is almost impossible to over- dung it, the cost would be too great. and it would be decidedly inadvisa ble to lighten a light soil, a moderate moisture being necessary to free growth. Again, the dormant nutrftuent is nothing like so much as in a reten- tive staple. It is better gardening to let the small amount of food remain locked-up rather than make a porous soil more dusty. As for insect and fungoid troubles, a liberal dressing of fresh soot is an effective substitute f(,r the insects, and a check to diseases.
Among the Flowers I
Among the Flowers. A ROCKERY. The rockery feature gives variety to small as well as large garden pictures. The charm of a garden consists in having more than the general run of straight beds and straighter paths. A rocJswork patch lifts one's garden ab- ove the average. Here is a chance to show the neighbours what can be done to make a rectanglar plot into a garden scene. Of course, the picture can be made still more beautiful by the person with originality enough to introduce curves into the lawn, and the borders and paths. The most con- venient position for building the rock- ery is against a fence, or rft one end of the grass. Material for making the rockery will have to be otbained. Some kind of local stone oould be em- ployed, or burrs (burnt bricks), old and broken bricks made ornamental through coating them with cement wash, thick pieces of tree branches, etc. The Start. Mark out the boundaries of the rockwork erection. Arrange for a gentle incline, seeing that the rains will quickly rush off anything like a steep slope without wetting the habitants. Suppose you are mak- ing the rockery away from the fence, the building might take the form of a plateau, and the sides could slope gra- dually and irregularly to the surface. Another style is a sunk centre, plant- ed with tall subjects that can stand a deal of moisture. This has an exceed- ingly nice effect, for the rockery sides conceal the hare stems of the giant perennials. Yet another suggestion would be to miniature a mountain val- ley, two hills with slight slopes and a valley between. This valley could also be below the surface level. The Making. The whole site must be dug one spit deep. Next, a mound of earth, mould, and manure should be worked into shape. The lower half of the pile may be quite rough earth; but the upper layer, into which the plants' rootlets are to go. must be decent mould with a moderate amount of the rotted dung mixed in it. Put'the pieces of rock- work together from the outside and proceed toward the centre, laying the parts that the rain will run into the pile. Almost every piece ought to be tilted downwards and eentrewards. Leave large and small gaps for vary- ing sized plants, and strive to avoid formality in the building. A pretty effect is given when an irregular bor- der is left in the front foa- edging plants, with an occasional burr. If a reader thinks these suggestons elabo- rate. he will soon find that very few plants will flojirfsli between stones fill- ed up with a little earth. Proper depth and quality of .soil is a neces- sity. The Planting. The question of what to plant will depeujd upon the rockery's situation. If in the total shade, then ferns and evergreens will have to be its main- stay. A little colour may be secured with several of the most robust among the perennials. Try Michaelmas daisies and the common varieties of other exceptionally hardy races. You might have the ordinary polyanthuses in flower, but not the more lovely nam- ed primulas. Plants for partially sned- ed spots—the shady side of the garden are: St. John's wort, periwinkle, fox- gloves, primroses. Alpine auriculas, polyanthuses, the hardier primulas, snowdrops, scillas. narcis. columbines (aquilegias). dielytras. doronieums, So- lomon's seal, hepaticas, German irises, saxifrage, pansies. violas, the viola cornuta. sunflowers, liliums speciosum and the hardy autumn varieties, rud- beckias. sunroses (helianthemums), aubretias. galegas. and some others. Genera that will flourish in a sunny rockery need not be enumerated. There is no reason why plants which succeed in the sunny garden border should not not do well in the rock- work. Should they seem likely to get sun-dried. mulching with old ma- nure. fibre, or leaf mould will be the remedy.
Another Victory over Sweating Contractors I
Another Victory over Sweating Contractors. Miss Sylvia Pankhurst is ta be con- gratulated on the persistency with which she keeps on the track of the sweating contractors. Too many of this kidney are prepared to sweat the wives and daughters of men who are bleeding in the battle line. One firm of brushmakers holding an Army Contract, up to recently, only paid at the rate of 1 j'2 per dozen for the finished article. Miss Pankhurst, having placed the facts before Mr. Keir Hardie, the latter brought the mat- ter to the notice of the War Office, and urged immediate action, with the result that the contractors have been compelled to considerably increase the amount paid to their workers, as the following communication will show: — "War Office, London, S.W., lotfi Dec., 1914. Sii-With reference to your let- ters of the 29th and 30th October, relating to the rates of wages paid by a certain firm of brushmakers. I am directed to inform you that in- quiry has been made into the mat- ter, atod it is understood that the rates for the work in question have now been raised to 1/7 per dozen brush es. I am, Sir, Your obedient Servant. (Signed), N. T. B. OSBOEN, Assist- ant Director of Army Contracts. J. KEIR HARDIE. Esq., M.P., London. E.G.
'Phone 597. 'Phone 597. William Treseder, Ltd. THE NURSERIES, CARDIFF. WREATHS, CROSSES, CUT FLOWERS, &c. Or>CTTQ A)! the Leadtn? New Var- i???'O-E?? ieties !n commerce. Trees and Ornamental Shrubs. Apples, Pears, Gooseberries, Currants, &c. I Tela: TRESBDHR, FLORIST. CARDIFF."
Y Rhyfel Anghyfiawn
Y Rhyfel Anghyfiawn. Gan T. E. NICHOLAS, Llangybi. Gwasg RyddfrydoH Pan dorodd y Kliyfel Anghyfiawn allan, dechreuais ysgrifenu cyfres o ganeuon yn y "T*fy Side," papur a. gyhoeddir yn nhre Aberteifi, yr hwn broffesa fod yn ryddfrydol ei svniadau. Creodd y caneuon storm go fawr yn y papur. Ysgrifenydd llythyrau yn fy erbyn dan ffugemvau, llythyrau na fu- asai yr un papur parchus yn eu cy- hoeddi. Henwid y llythyrau nid a t'hesymau o blaid y rhyfel, ond ag ymosodiadau personol arnaf fi. Tua bythefnos yn ol daeth llythyr allan i guro yn lied drwm arnaf. Ym mhlith pethau ereill dvwedai y llythyr fy mod yn wallgof! Ond nid oedd hyny o fawr pwvj, yn fy ngolwg. Gadawaf i'r dy- fodol benderfynu pwy sy'n wallgof yng nghlyn a'r rhyfel anghyfiawn. Yn y llythyr hwnw yr oedd dau reswm pa- liam y dylasai Prydain ymladd. Yr oedd y ddau reswm yn sylfaenedig ar gelwydd. Yr oedd dyddiadau yn an- ghywir. ac yr oetid cvnwysiad "Trea- ties yn anghywir. Ysgrifenais air i gywirio'r ddau wall. Tybiais nad teg gadael i gelwydd noeth fynd heibio heb wneud sylw o hono. Ond deallaf mai amcan y "Tyfi Side" vdvw camarwain y wlad ar bwnc dechreuad y rhyfel, fel y pnawf yr ateb a ganlyn dderbyniais yn gyfrinachol oddiwrthynt: — 'The Cardigan and Tivy-Side, Advertiser.' Cardigan, December 14, lg#. Dear Mr. Nicholas, We regret to have to return your letter in reply to Mr. J. E. Morgan. You will. 1 am sure, believe me when I say that it is not through want of courtesy to yourself that we do not insert your letter, but circum- stances have altered since the con- troversy opened. The Government Censorship lias become exceedingly said. and the latest 1 Orders in Connil Issued a week a.go forbid us from publishing anything that is likely to retard recruiting or REFLECT IX ANY WAY OX THE ACTIONS OF THE GOVERNMENT WITH REGARD TO THE AVAR. The penalty is suppression of publication and confiscation. There- fore. your wiU understand our posi- tion in the matter. Thanking you sinerely for your contributions in the past. For the Tivy G. A. GRIFFITHS." Gan fod fy llythyr yn cynwys atebiad i ymosodiad oedd wedi ei wneud arnaf, teg fuasai iddo gael ei gyhoeddi. Ga.n nad oedd yn fy llythyr ddim ond dyf- yniadau o "Bapurau GAvyn"y llywodr- aeth. nis gallaf weld 3, buasai hyny yn adleAv.vrchu yn anffafriol ami. Ond y mae llaAver u bethau i'w weld rhwng Iiiiiellatt yn v llythyr uchod. Yn cynt- at, y mae ofii ffeitliiau ar y Llywodraeth. Beth sydd gan un achos cyfiaAvn i golli wrth roddi goleuni i'r wla,,d? Pe bae'r "Tify Side" yn meddu ar syriad clir o chwareu teg buasai yn rhwystro ymosodiadau arnaf fi, gan nad oedd yn barod i roddi cyfie i mi ateb. Y peth lleiaf aUai unryAv bapur wneud ydoedd ga.dael i mi ateb. ac yna cau'r drafod- aeth. Ond ymddengys fod y Llywodr- aeth Avedi bygwth cymeryd meddiant o'r papur, a'i rwvstro i ddod allan, os cai rhywbeth anffafriol i gigyddion Ew- rope yinddangos. Ga lIaf yclnnmegn na fuasai yn golled mawr i wlad pe rhwvs- trid pob papur o'i fath i vmddangos, am ei fod wedi cydnabod fod yn rhaid tAvvlIo'r bobl cyn yr ymunant a'r fydd- in. Dylasai y wasg sefyll dros ryddid, a sefyll dros oleuni. Dvwedai y Tify Side eln bod yn ymladd dros Ryddid yn Ewrop, ond gellid ymladd dro ryddid yn nes gartref nag EwT-op fel yr ym- ddengys. Xid raid croesi'r moroedd i ymladd dros ryddid. Y mae pethau o'r fath Avedi mynd ym mlaen drw'r blyn- ydau yn Rwssia dechreuir efelychu RwssKi yn ei phetliau salaf eisoes. "Gwell angau na cliywilydd." I Rhyfel Dramor. I Rhenir rliyfeloedd i ddau ddosbarth. Rhyfeloedd Cartrefol, a Rhyfeloedd Tramor. Pan fyddo dwy genedl wa- hanol yn ymladd a'i gilydd, dyna ryfel Dramor; pan fyddo un genedl wedi Avedi rhanu'n ddAvy adran, ac yn ym- ladd, dyna ryfel gartrefol. Ond i Gristionogaeth y itiae pob rhyfel yu Ryfel Gartrefol. Y ma.e dynion yn ftodyr. a'r byd yn wlad i ddynion. Pan lyddo unrvw ddwy genedl yn ymladd a'i gftydd v mae hyny yn ryfel gartref- b oI. Yr ysbryd sydd yn genud i ddyn- ion edrych ar genedl arall fel estron, sydd wrth Avraidd yr holl rvfeloedd. Dvwedai Tolstoi mai cenedlgarwch gau sydd wrth wraidd y rhan fwyaf o rvfel- oedd. A'r peth cyntaf AA-neir iiiewn cvf- nod o rhyfel ydvw, tynu darlun iiioll ddn ac sydd yn bosibl o'r genedl sydd yn ymladd a ni. Rhaid gwneud hyny tuag at greu ysbryd dialgar yn y mil- wyr. Pe yr eljft i'r drafferth o egluro achosion y rhyfel i'r milwyr, nid wyf yn meddwl y buasai un o lionvnt mor ynfyd a rhoddi ei fywyd lawr. ¥ mae hyn yn wir am filwyr pob gwlad. Oblegid yr un yw milwriaeth ym mhob gwlad. Pe oeid vchydig o ysbryd Orist- ionogaeth i fywyd gwleidvddol y wlad, buasai rhyfel yn amliosibl. Bydd pob pghvys yn y wlad yn canu dydd Na- dolig, "Gogoniant yn y goruchaf i Dduw; ar y ddaear tangnefedd, i ddvnion ewyllys da" Dyna fydd byrd- wn yn canu foreu'r Nadolig. Pe bae dynion yn sylweddoli ystyr y canu hyn. buan y darfyddai rhyfel. Ond rhaid rhoddi Cristionogaeth o'r neulldu. Mail Groeshoelio'r Crist, er mwyn i drachwant ac uchelgais llyw- odraethwyr y byd gael eu diwaltu. Nid oes deimladau cas rhwng milwyr y gwlcdydd a'u gilydd hyd nes y twy'hr hwynt gan y llyAvodraethwryr. Y mae'n fwy mnlwg bob dydd iiaai cvfaill penaf y llywodraethwyr rdyw Twyll. Buasai yn fantais i'r byd i red Ii prawf ar Gristionogaeth. Ymladd dros Warelddiad. Yr Avyf yn cofio pan aethum i Gwm y lihondda yn hogyn ieuanc, y peth cyntaf Avelais vno oedd dau ddyn yn ymladd. Yr oeddynt vti curo eu gSydd yn. ddychrvnllyd. Daeth yr heddgeid- wad ym mlaen. a gofynodd pam oedd- ynt ym ymladd? Yr wyf yn ymladd dros fy ngwraig," meddai un o lion- ynt. 0 dan draed y ddau ymlacMwr wr oedd dynes fach wan, welw, a'i gwyneb yn waed i gyd. Pwy yw lion." meddai heddgeidAvad ? A dyma'r gwr ddywedodd ei fod yn ymladd dros ei Avraig yn ateb eto mai e wraig ef ydoedd! Wrth ymladd dros ei wraig. yr oedd yn gwneud mwy o gajn a'i Avraig na phe bae yn peidio ymladd drosti. Wrtli vmladd drosti yr opdd yn sat1 ru ei wraig dan draed. Y Iliae pethau yn Ewrop yr un fath. Y mae y gwledydd yn ymladd dros Avareiddiad. Methwn weld beth sydd yn oyfrif am sel ddisymwyth Hwssia, a'r Turoos, a'r Gliurkas, a'r Japs, dro wareidkliad. Hwynthwv vdny noddwyr gwresocaf anAvarciddiad drwy'r oesau. Ond y maent yn ymladd dros wareiddiad yn awr! Y mae Prydain Fawr yn ol ei harfer wrth gAvrs, yn ymladd hefyd i dros wareiddiad. Ond y mae gAvareidd- iad o dan dmied y cen lied loe,(Itl sydd yn ymladd drn-io. Y mae rhyddid a gwar- eiddiad wedi ei mathru dan draed. it" gellir helpu gwar- eiddiad AIU ymiaen drwy gyfryngau anAvaraidd. Rhatd i bob cyf- iwng anAvaraidd ledaenu'r nerthoedd sydd yn elynol i Avareiddiad. Y mae tj fian t a chynydd meddyliol a masnacli- ol haner canrif wedi ei ddinystrio wrth ymladd dros Avareiddiad ItAvssia. Teflir Ewrop yn ol am ddegau o flyn- yddoed, a bydd gAvareiddiad, a rhyddid RAVssia yn safon i wledydd ereill am amser hir. Y mae'n ymddangos fod y llyAvodraeth wedi trefnu i nifer o ddyn- ion wylio ar clwr Llundain, rhag ofn i angylion tirion tklod i ganu'r Nadolig hwn am heddwsh. Y gorchymyn roddir iddynt yw saethu pob angel ddaw'n agos i'r wlad. Pa hawl sydd gan angylion na dynion i son am heddAvch! Onid yw rhyfel yn sanctaidd Onid yw pregethwyr ac offeiriaid y wlad yn dAveyd hyny Yd- yw Duw yn meddwl fod ganddo fwy o hawl i gael ei Avrando gan y byd na'r Parch- John Williams, Brynsiencyn Ydyw'r Ysbryd Glan yn medchvl y g;(?l arwail1 y byd yn Avell na Lloyd George! Os yw'r Aiifeldi-of yn meddAvi y ca ej ffol.(Id yn y byd. buan y dengys y LJy, Avocli-aetli ei gamsynied iddo. Gyda phri- odoldeb y gallai'r llywodraeth ddweyd —" Hon yw ein IIi, a Ty- wyllwch. Llongau R'hyfiel Germany. ( rewyd gr\n gytfro yr wvthnos ddi- J b bJ Aveddaf gan longau r' ylel Germany. Taniasant ar amryw borthladdoedd yn y AA-lad lion. Nid heb reswm y gofynir sut yr oedd yn bosibl iddynt ddod mor agos i'r wlad hon heb fod ein llongau rhyfel ni yn eu gweld. Yr ydym wedi ymflrostio cymaint yn ein gallu ar y mor, ac weJi gIVario arian aruthrol
TRUE PROGRESS. If human progress is your aim, you cannot secure it by the help of the sol- dier. The soldier's sole business is to destroy. and as a conscript you are trained to destroy. The world has pro- gressed by the work of the producers —men who have given their brain and muscle to build up. Ignorance has long kept men separate, distance kept them apart; but one after another the caus- sea of separtion have been removed, and people of all ilaa tions now work togethar to supply each other's needs. Taue national service is to join with people of all nations in bidding up a free com- monwealth of happ$- men and women.
XMAS DAY 3h AD
XMAS DAY, 3h A.D. I A XMAS STORY I By PHILIP FRANKFORD. On Christmas morning, in the Year 3114 A.D., the sum was shining from a clear blue sky in Peace town, A south-west wind and a warm sun did not seem in keep- ing with the traditions of Yuletide, even though, on the south coast, one could often look for mild weather round Christmas. Some of the folk were grumbling that it was not like the old time weather," but the satisfied ones replied that they were glad it was not. Peacetown was one of the many splendid cities which sprang up when the industrial republic came into be- ing. It was one of the jewels that went to make up the crown now worn by the People. And, under the So- cialist Commonwealth, the People were vested with the supreme power. Class- es had disappeared; a feeling of solid- arity existed between each and all. The only capitalist was the People, and each citizen was partner in the firm. All able-bodied persons between 21 and 45 contributed their quota to the necessary work of the community, and each received a share of the wealth they produced. Shirkers, fight- ing men, and exploiters had no place. M«i and women dwelt together in peace and concord. If you wish to know what this city was like. imagine miles of broad streets, shaded by trees and lined with fine buildings, for the most part, not in continuous blocks, but set )n larger or smaller enclosures. Every quarter contained large open spaces fill- ed with trees, amongst which statues glistened in the sun. It was said just now that some of the people were grumbling about the "unseasona ble Christmas," but if the weather wa.s not an improvement on the olden tunes, the social conditions certainly were. We have already spo- ken of the innovations. Let us add that rich and poor were forgotten words. Slums had long ago given place to beautiful and healthy dwelling pla- ces—the pride and joy of the People. Disease, war. anxiety, worry and care, together with all that is dan- gerous, ugly, and unhealthy, had long since disappeared. For capi- talism, the great octopus, the serpent, the fiery dragon Avijth many heads, which guarded the way to the tree of life, had disappeared. Along the beautiful pine-walk of the sea, some splendid specimens of humanity were that day to be seen. Men and women were mentally, phsi- cally and morally far and away su- perior to their ancetors of the 20th Century. The human floAver had been transplanted from a soil where it had little cliztivee of thriving to a place Avhere it was watered, tended to and received the Avarnith of the sun. The result was that it blossomed forth. Among those who walked along the pine-walk by the sea that Christmas morning was a young man of ahout fiye and twenty, and a girl some six years his junior. The dress of both was healthy and pleasing to the eye. The fe- male attire no longer suffered from the slavery of fashion, and each wo- man was able to design the costume that suited her the best. And every individual was free and en- couraged to cultivate the highest side of their nature. The shoddy material supplied by the "dividend hunter" in another age had been sup- planted by the splendid homespun ma- terial of the golden era. Let us now listen for a moment to the converation of these two young people. You were telling me," the girl said, "that in the era of capitalism the rich people were accustomed to feast and make merry at Christmas al- most within the hearing of dire pov- erty. and yet at church on this very day they would sing of I. peace and goodwill while thousands were cry- ing out for a crust. Can this be true? Of course, I have heard it all before. But I could not believe that any man or woman could behave like that." she added, her eyes flashing witth indigo nation. "It is true." the young man re- plied. "I consulted the Itistoriai), Ti vitlnvell. recently on the subject, and he tells us that the poor had more Christmas cheer under Feudalism than they did in the commercial period, with all its boasted civilisation. For in- stance, the feudal villain lind on the domain of his lord. He feasted at times, like Christmas, at his superi- or's table, albeit he Avas placed 'be- low the salt.' At Yuletide, under Ca- pitalism. thousands starved wlifte the rich satiated themselves, as indeed tli(- k did at all seasons." Of course. we learned all this at school, but I always doubted the ve- racity of the historian." Why ?" "I could not believe the statement because we are also told that the Peo- ple were the real rulers, and democ- racy was all powerful. If this was the case, why did the masses submit to wars, in which some of the members of the working classes were killed and the others robbed for generations to pay for the slaughter? Why if they were mssip.rs did they let the rich rob them, exploit them, 1. keep them irom the good thmgs, the earth Tell me, if democracy^ oome into its own, why did ansto rule p" "Because, dear gIrl, locracv hai not commenced to reign • on- ly in theory. The capital wi tll all tiieii- wealth, theii- liolice ers, parsons, and last, butot least, their press, were able to s.lue tlie People by various methods. heating, lying and false representath beirw their general way of doing 1 sin&¡¡) and war was the alternative Avq thIJ first method was not successful a. Ah! I begin to see now h-+,a, big men prevented the masses frcn ￼ ming into their own. And Christianity was dead. was it not;" "Christianity was watered down, and the cream was taken for th^ milk Christ's religian taught the simple but beautiful command, Thou shalt- love thy neighbour as thyself.' Under Ca- pitalism, this was impossible. Mili- tarism, to giVe one example, taught that killing was no murder.' and Militarism was the horrible child of Capitalism. Once more. we find three hundred years ago that for the sake of com- mercial gain the fields of Europe were turned into cemeteries. That is how the Christian natians kept to the golden commandment." What cant and hypocrisy," indig- nantly replied the girl. "These people were murderers." "Every crime perpetrated by the capitalist was no crime at all. The end justified the means." They had reached a splendid build- ing now the Peopie's Palace — a social rendezvvous of the People of Peacetown. A large and commodiouA affair, built bp loving hands for the benefit of all. The architecture and decoration eclipsed anything which the- 20th Century had seen. Here, under one roof. were private rooms for tha families of the ward. Public apart- ment. where young and old coud meet their friends. Danci smoking. and writing rooms. A theatre, concert hall. a museum" a library, and many other features of interest, incluring splendid grounds. They mounted the beautiful rjftrbli staircase, and entered the public din- ing room. Here were many people laug-hing and talking in groups. The hour of the Christmas luncheon was at hand. And our young friends were soon engaged, with others, in the hap- py group in a round of merriment. Christmas decorations, holly and evergreens still made their welcome ap- pearance, and added to the gaiety of the festival. We have not space to tell of the happy luncheon at which these merry folk gathered, and which was served by those comrades whose duties took them to the kitchen and serving de- partment. for three hours daily only. to be relieved by others. And these shared equally with all the rest of that happy commuity. and if one part of the day saw them serving, another would see them being served. If a stranger had looked down on this gathering, he would most likely ha.ve wondered at the complete absence from the faces of those people of care, anxiety, or misery, and of wrinkles or any sign of old age. A grand ope- ratic concert, dancing and games fol- lowed the luncheon. Then just before the Christmas eve- ning banquet, the function called the- Commemoration took place. On Christmas day. it was customary in these People'.s Palaces to coiiiniemorato. Christmas and the Social Revolution by singing the old carols, the revolution- arv songs of the old So- cialists, which were usually follow- ed by an address. Thus a little later found our friends in the lecture hall, and when they had sung the carola anti Ilk-niiis a comrade from the plat- form thus addressed tliein Comrades, every year on Christ- mas Day. people have celebrated the fpast of peace and goodwill for cen- turies. And yet what mockery it was until the day of social revolution to present one ariother with Christmas greetings ? Try. if you can. and picture a land where seven-eights of its inhabitant* were living in perpetual poverty; a Aveary grind to lblla ke ends meet. Think of the twelve millions on the verge of starvation., and only a fringe of the population rich at the beginnitig of the SOth Century. Consider the deadly fight. in which a number were flung into the sea of poverty, and sank! How was this state of things possi- bloo you, the glorious ones of this gol- den era, a,<¡k,/ How indeed. s<\ve by ly- ing, cheating, thieving, and stealing on the pan of those in power. By subsdising a press that never spoke the truth, by hiring from the crowd of the lowest and worst educated, an ar- my of assassins, by paying politicians to foster ignorance, and sharing a small fraction of the wealth with the men of God to pa-each falsehood. In a thousand other cunning ways the rich kept their ill gotten gains. During the ma.ny sorrowful celebra- (Continued on Page 7, Column (ij, <